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issues in oncology

Drug Developers Share Thoughts on the Oncology Pipeline and the Changes in Clinical Trials

Two oncologists who are now heads of oncology development for pharmaceutical companies discussed the future of cancer drugs at the Community Oncology Alliance’s 2022 Community Oncology Conference. They were ­Johanna Bendell, MD, Global Head of Oncology, Pharma Research, and Early Development at...

issues in oncology

Researchers Develop and Monitor Approaches to Fix Blood Vessel Abnormalities That Make Tumors Difficult to Treat

Tumors send out signals that impair normal blood flow, which makes them hard to treat with multiple therapies, including radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Impaired blood supply creates an environment low in oxygen levels, which causes the tumors to take on aggressive...

issues in oncology

ASCO and ACCC Release Wide-Ranging Recommendations to Expand Diverse Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials

ASCO and the Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC) have jointly released recommendations that address the lack of equity, diversity, and inclusion in cancer clinical trials. Published by Randall A. Oyer, MD, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the research statement details ...

covid-19

Mortality and Associated Factors Among Patients With Cancer vs No Cancer Infected With SARS–CoV-2

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Network Open, Khoury et al found that SARS­­–CoV-2 infection was associated with a higher risk of mortality among patients with cancer vs those without cancer. Risk vs those with no cancer was increased with younger age, and patients with...

breast cancer

Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using a Pegulicianine Fluorescence–Guided System

In the INSITE study reported in JAMA Surgery, E. Shelley Hwang, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that use of an intraoperative imaging agent with a pegulicianine fluorescence–guided system (pFGS) was effective in detecting residual cancer in the tumor bed of women with breast cancer undergoing...

breast cancer

Surgery Preference and Surgery Received in Women With DCIS

In an ancillary study of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group E4112 study reported in JAMA Network Open, Fazeli et al found that patient preference of type of surgery and type of surgery received for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was influenced by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...

colorectal cancer

Smitha S. Krishnamurthi, MD, on Colorectal Cancer: Treatment Updates

Smitha S. Krishnamurthi, MD, of the Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, discusses prognostic assays for localized colon cancer, the potential clinical uses and current limitations of prognostic assays for stage II to III disease, and checkpoint inhibitor therapy for metastatic colorectal...

gastrointestinal cancer
breast cancer
survivorship
multiple myeloma
lymphoma

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: 2022 Updates

In 1996, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) published its first set of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology® covering eight tumor types. Guidelines are now published for more than 60 tumor types, subtypes, and topics. During the NCCN’s 27th Annual Conference, which was again...

breast cancer

Etirinotecan Pegol vs Physician’s Choice of Chemotherapy for Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Debu Tripathy, MD, and colleagues, the phase III ATTAIN trial has shown no difference in overall survival with etirinotecan pegol vs physician’s choice of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer and brain metastases. As noted by the investigators,...

genomics/genetics

Study Points to Expanded Genomic Testing to Benefit Children and Young Adults With Cancer

New findings from researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center published by Shukla et al in Nature Communications reported the results of using a comprehensive sequencing approach on 114 pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients with solid tumors. The researchers found that their...

hepatobiliary cancer

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Pump Chemotherapy vs Resection for Multifocal Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Franssen et al found little difference in median overall survival with hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) floxuridine chemotherapy vs resection in patients with multifocal intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details The study population consisted of ...

legislation

Medicaid Expansion Is Associated With Increased Survival in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer

A large study led by researchers at the American Cancer Society showed that Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with an increase in 2-year overall survival rates among patients newly diagnosed with cancer, especially among non-Hispanic Black people and people...

leukemia
multiple myeloma

Using a Transcriptomic Profile to Identify Plasma Cell Leukemia–Like Disease in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bruinink et al constructed a transcriptomic classifier for primary plasma cell leukemia (PCL) that identified high-risk PCL-like disease in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. As stated by the investigators, “Primary PCL is an...

lung cancer
genomics/genetics

Matthew L. Meyerson, MD, PhD, on Lung Adenocarcinoma: Somatic Mutations, Germline Risk, and Ancestry

Matthew L. Meyerson, MD, PhD, of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses study findings that suggest the variation in frequency of EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer may be associated with genetic ancestry in patients from Latin America. The results indicate it may be possible to identify...

issues in oncology

The Future of Community Oncology Practice

Although community oncology practice may have been changing before the COVID-19 pandemic, it amplified industry trends. At the 2022 Community Oncology Alliance’s Community Oncology Conference, a panel of experts discussed issues related to the future of community cancer care, including...

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

Longer Follow-up Shows Adjuvant Immunotherapy After Bladder Cancer Surgery May Be Associated With Reduced Disease Recurrence

Treatment with the anti–PD-1 therapy nivolumab after surgery helped reduce cancer recurrence in patients with urothelial cancer of the bladder or other sites in the urinary tract that had invaded the muscle and therefore posed a high risk for recurrence, according to clinical trial results...

breast cancer

Study Investigates Possible Link Between Risk of Breast Cancer in Males and Male Infertility

The risk of invasive breast cancer in men may be associated with self-reported infertility, according to a study published by Swerdlow et al in the journal Breast Cancer Research. The authors interviewed 1,998 males in England and Wales diagnosed with breast cancer, with 112 (5.6%) also...

pancreatic cancer

Early Postoperative Algorithm-Based vs Usual Care After Pancreatic Resection

In a Dutch nationwide trial reported by Smits et al in The Lancet, researchers in the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group found that algorithm-based early postsurgical care was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome of bleeding requiring invasive intervention, organ failure, and 90-day...

breast cancer

Do Electronic Health Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Other Health Outcomes in Patients With Breast Cancer?

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Singleton et al found that electronic health interventions were associated with improved quality of life, distress, self-efficacy, and fatigue vs usual care during or after treatment in patients with breast...

breast cancer

Guideline-Concordant Treatment of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa With Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Foerster et al, the African Breast Cancer–Disparities in Outcomes prospective cohort study has shown that a high proportion of women in sub-Saharan Africa with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer did not initiate, did not fully complete, or abandoned...

covid-19

CoVac-1 Vaccination Studied for Prevention of Severe COVID-19 in Immune-Deficient Patients With Cancer

CoVac-1, a multipeptide COVID-19 vaccine candidate, elicited immunogenicity in patients with cancer and disease-related or treatment-related immunoglobulin deficiency in a phase I/II trial reported at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2022.1 These patients are...

colorectal cancer

Colonoscopy After Positive FIT Test May Reduce Risk of Death From Colorectal Cancer

Recent research underlines the importance of following up with a colonoscopy exam after a positive result on an at-home stool test to screen for colorectal cancer. The test, known as the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), checks for traces of blood in patient-collected stool samples, which can be an...

bladder cancer
genomics/genetics

Report Finds Uptake of Erdafitinib for Urothelial Cancer May Be Limited, Despite Positive Real-World Survival Data

The first bladder cancer drug targeting a cancer-driving gene mutation has been used relatively little despite its clear efficacy in a clinical trial, suggests a report published as a research letter by Nimgaonkar et al in JAMA Oncology. Researchers analyzed a large, nationwide database of cancer...

prostate cancer

Addition of ADT and Pelvic Lymph Node Radiotherapy to Salvage Prostate Bed Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

In a phase III trial (NRG Oncology/RTOG 0534 SPPORT) reported in The Lancet, Alan Pollack, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that both the addition of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and the addition of ADT and pelvic lymph node radiotherapy (PLNRT) to salvage prostate bed radiotherapy...

gynecologic cancers

Addition of Vistusertib to Anastrozole for Hormone Receptor–Positive Recurrent or Metastatic Endometrial Cancer

In a French phase I/II trial (VICTORIA) reported in JAMA Oncology, Heudel et al found that the addition of the mTOR inhibitor vistusertib to anastrozole improved outcomes in women with hormone receptor–positive recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer. As stated by the investigators, “Endometrial ...

cns cancers

Neurologic and Survival Outcomes After Awake Craniotomy for Glioblastoma

In an analysis from the GLIOMAP study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Gerritsen et al found that awake craniotomy for glioblastoma in eloquent brain areas (essential areas for carrying out basic neurological functions) was associated with reduced risk of neurologic deficits and improved survival...

gynecologic cancers

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD, on Hysterectomy for Early Cervical Cancer: New Findings on Open vs Minimally Invasive Surgery

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses the final analysis of the LACC trial (Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer), which showed that women with early cervical cancer who need a radical hysterectomy may have worse outcomes with minimally invasive...

gynecologic cancers

Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, on Ovarian Cancer: New Data on Mirvetuximab Soravtansine

Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses findings from the SORAYA study on the efficacy and safety of mirvetuximab soravtansine in patients who have platinum-resistant ovarian cancer with high folate receptor–alpha expression. Based on the results, Dr. Matulonis believes...

solid tumors
genomics/genetics

PARP1-Selective Inhibitor Offers Significant Benefits Over Older Predecessors in Treatment of Solid Tumors

The first-in-human, first-in-class trial of the next-generation PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase) 1–selective inhibitor AZD5305 suggests this drug may be a welcome advance over its U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved predecessors in the treatment of solid tumors with alterations in...

gastroesophageal cancer
covid-19

Delays in Surgery for Advanced Esophageal Cancer Result in Significantly Worse Survival

Delays in surgery for esophageal cancer did not appear to have much impact on patients’ relative survival for early-stage cancer compared with patients who had surgery early, but they did reduce the relative survival rate by almost half for patients with more advanced disease, according to an...

colorectal cancer

Age at Initiation of Colorectal Cancer Screening and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among U.S. Women

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ma et al found that the initiation of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy screening in women younger than age 50 was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer vs no screening, and a greater absolute risk reduction compared with screening starting at age...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Report Investigates Potential Causes of Decreasing Responses to CAR T-Cell Therapy in Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

A study published by Jackson et al in Cancer Discovery investigated the reasons for decreased remission rates for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. "CAR T-cell therapy is a promising treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, especially for...

colorectal cancer

Watch-and-Wait Strategy for Organ Preservation in Patients Receiving Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Rectal Adenocarcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Garcia-Aguilar et al found that total neoadjuvant therapy followed by a watch-and-wait strategy vs total mesorectal excision based on response allowed for organ preservation in approximately half of patients with rectal...

leukemia
survivorship

AYA Leukemia Survivors Have Higher Mortality Rates Than the General Population

Although considered a rare occurrence in adolescents and young adults (AYAs), aged 15 to 39 years, the incidence of cancer in this age group has been increasing by approximately 30% since the 1970s. This year, it is estimated that nearly 90,000 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in this...

MONALEESA-3: Updated Overall Survival Analysis

On this episode, we’ll be discussing an updated overall survival analysis from the MONALEESA-3 trial presented at the ESMO Breast Cancer Congress 2022. Then, we’ll hear from a researcher about the current state of cancer research and anticipated trends in the field.

issues in oncology
genomics/genetics

Nickolas Papadopoulos, PhD, on Multicancer Early Detection: Opportunities and Challenges

Nickolas Papadopoulos, PhD, of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses early detection as the key to reducing cancer mortality and the lack of tests for many malignancies. Liquid biopsies have the potential to screen for various tumor types, albeit with varying levels of...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Maria Alma Rodriguez, MD, on Vaccinations for Patients With Cancer and Cancer Survivors

Maria Alma Rodriguez, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses the need for various types of vaccinations in patients with cancer, who are vulnerable to infection while under active treatment and whose immune deficits may persist long after treatment is finished. Dr....

prostate cancer

Polygenic Score May Enable More Precise PSA Screening for Prostate Cancer

The use of a polygenic score incorporating variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values that are not due to cancer may allow for more precise PSA screening, according to findings of a large genome-wide association study presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual ...

hematologic malignancies
multiple myeloma
lymphoma
leukemia

Prevalence of Plasma Cell and Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Relatives of Probands With Light Chain Amyloidosis

In a study reported in the British Journal of Haematology, Staron et al found that the prevalence of plasma cell and lymphoproliferative disorders among blood relatives of probands with light chain (AL) amyloidosis was low overall and varied according to proband AL amyloidosis subtype. Despite...

colorectal cancer

3 vs 6 Months of Adjuvant Oxaliplatin- and Fluoropyrimidine-Based Therapy for Stage III Colon Cancer: Final Analysis

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Yoshino et al, the final analysis of survival and safety of the Japanese phase III ACHIEVE trial (part of the IDEA Collaboration) has shown no difference in disease-free or overall survival with 3 vs 6 months of adjuvant mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil,...

bladder cancer

Mortality and Perioperative Outcomes With Open vs Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer

In a Swedish population-based cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Mortezavi et al found that robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with reduced all-cause mortality, reduced high-grade complications, and improved perioperative outcomes vs open ...

solid tumors

Association of Chromosome 3p25.3 Gain With Cisplatin Resistance and Outcomes in Male Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Timmerman et al found that chromosome 3p25.3 gain was present in all cisplatin-resistant germ cell tumor (GCT) lines in vitro; was more common in patients with relapsed or cisplatin-resistant male type II GCTs; and was associated with poorer...

lung cancer

Patients With NSCLC Brain Metastases Undergoing Neurosurgical Resection: Comparison of Treatment Regimens

In a German single-institution retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Wasilewski et al found that treatment with immune checkpoint inhibition plus radiotherapy was associated with prolonged overall survival vs platinum-based chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in patients with brain...

lung cancer

Ara Klijian, MD, on Lung Cancer: Operability in Patients With Poor Pulmonary Function

Ara Klijian, MD, of Scripps Health, discusses findings on the safety of AVATS (awake video-assisted thoracic surgery), a procedure that may benefit select patients, including those whose early non–small cell lung cancer was previously deemed inoperable due to poor pulmonary function. Performed...

breast cancer

Sentinel Node May Not Be Informative in Making Treatment Decisions for Some Breast Cancer Subsets

In women aged 70 and older with hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative, low-risk breast cancers, sentinel lymph node biopsy may not be a reliable indicator of the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, researchers reported at the 2022 American Society of Breast Surgeons Annual Meeting.1 “We found that...

issues in oncology
supportive care

New Research Encourages Harnessing Health Technology to Help Patients With Cancer Quit Smoking

New research published by Ramsey et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network has found that the inclusion of the smoking cessation tool Electronic Health Record–Enabled Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment (ELEVATE) into electronic health records may increase...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Anti–CTLA-4 Antibody–Based Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Experiencing Disease Progression on Relatlimab/Nivolumab

In a study reported as a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Alexander M. Menzies, MD, and colleagues found that patients with metastatic melanoma who had progressive disease while receiving relatlimab/nivolumab had poor responses to anti–CTLA-4–based treatment. As noted...

immunotherapy

Report Finds Targeting IL-6 May Help to Relieve Immunotherapy Side Effects

Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a novel strategy to reduce immune-related adverse events caused by immunotherapy by targeting the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). The study, published by Hailemichael et al in Cancer Cell, establishes a proof of concept ...

immunotherapy
hematologic malignancies
leukemia
lymphoma

Rehospitalization and Emergency Department Visits After CAR T-Cell Therapy in Commercially Insured Patients With Cancer

In a single-institution study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Kenzik et al found substantial rates of rehospitalization and emergency department visits after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy among commercially insured patients with cancer. Study Details The study...

hepatobiliary cancer
pancreatic cancer
immunotherapy
genomics/genetics

Ipilimumab/Nivolumab in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic or Biliary Cancer and HRD Pathogenic Germline Variants

In a single-institution case series reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Terrero et al found that the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab was active in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic pancreatic or biliary cancer with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)...

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