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Journal Spotlight

Colorectal Cancer

Pembrolizumab Improves Progression-Free Survival vs Chemotherapy in First-Line Treatment of Microsatellite Instability–High Advanced Colorectal Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  December 25, 2020

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Thierry André, MD, of Sorbonne Université and Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris, and colleagues, the second interim analysis of the phase III KEYNOTE-177 trial has shown significantly prolonged progression-free survival with pembrolizumab vs fluorour...

Bladder Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Germline-Somatic Interactions in Advanced Urothelial Cancer and Their Role in Disease Progression

Matthew Stenger  /  December 25, 2020

In a study reported in Nature Communications, Bishoy M. Faltas, MD, of the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, and colleagues identified common germline-somatic variant interactions in advanced urothelial cancer, with these interacti...

Supportive Care

Fan Therapy May Relieve Breathlessness Associated With Advanced Cancers

The ASCO Post Staff  /  December 25, 2020

Blowing air from a fan into the face of patients with advanced cancer experiencing breathlessness—and other nonpharmacologic interventions—may offer symptomatic relief, according to new research directed by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators and published in JAMA Oncology.1 In contrast...

Leukemia

What Is the Measure of Minimal Residual Disease in AML?

Jerald P. Radich, MD  /  December 10, 2020

Relapse is the primary obstacle to cure in leukemia. The term minimal residual disease (MRD) was coined in the early 1990s to describe finding a disease-specific marker in the context of a morphologic-appearing remission. The technique first used for MRD detection was the Southern blot (!), but the ...

Leukemia

Meta-analysis Shows Superior Disease-Free and Overall Survival With Measurable Residual Disease Negativity in AML

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Nicholas J. Short, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, found that measurable residual disease (MRD) negativity is associated with superior disease-free and overall survival in patients with acut...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Immunotherapy

ASCO Releases Guideline on Systemic Therapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Leah Lawrence  /  December 10, 2020

ASCO has released a new evidence-based clinical practice guideline to assist in clinical decision-making for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.1 “Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma has transitioned from a disease where we had a single approved therapy for patients to one where we now ha...

Breast Cancer

No Reduced Recurrence Risk With Perioperative Aromatase Inhibitor Use in HR-Positive Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

In the UK phase III POETIC trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ian Smith, MD, of The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, and colleagues, found that perioperative aromatase inhibitor therapy did not reduce the risk of recurrence in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive e...

Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

Improved Outcomes With Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel Plus Trastuzumab/Lapatinib vs Paclitaxel/Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

In a 7-year follow-up of the phase III CALGB 40601/Alliance trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ­Aranzazu Fernandez-Martinez, MD, of Lineberger Comprehensive Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and colleagues found that neoadjuvant paclitaxel combined with a dual HER2-...

Solid Tumors

Continued Progression-Free and Overall Survival Superiority of First-Line Pembrolizumab/Axitinib vs Sunitinib

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Thomas Powles, MD, of Barts Cancer Institute, London, and colleagues, extended follow-up of the phase III KEYNOTE-426 trial shows continued progression-free and overall survival superiority with pembrolizumab/axitinib vs sunitinib alone in first-line treatment ...

Lung Cancer

The Lung Microbiome May Affect Lung Cancer Pathogenesis and Prognosis

The ASCO Post Staff  /  December 10, 2020

Enrichment of the lungs with oral commensal microbes was associated with advanced-stage disease, worse prognosis, and tumor progression in patients with lung cancer, according to results from a study published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.1 “The lung...

Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

Guideline Update Offers New Directions About Trastuzumab Emtansine for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Emily A. Kuhl, PhD  /  November 25, 2020

About 10% to 20% of newly diagnosed breast cancers demonstrate overexpression of the HER2 protein.1 Since the introduction of trastuzumab, several new HER2-targeted therapies have been approved for use in the adjuvant and metastatic settings (eg, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and neratinib). However, for s...

Lung Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Racial Disparities in Treatment of Common Lung Cancer Persist Despite Gains

The ASCO Post Staff  /  November 25, 2020

Lung cancer continues to be the most deadly solid cancer in the world, despite the fact that survival rates have been improving over the past decade. However, Black patients have worse outcomes and shorter lifespans after being diagnosed with lung cancer. A study published in the Journal of Surgical...

Breast Cancer

Addition of Abemaciclib to Endocrine Therapy Improves Invasive Disease–Free Survival in High-Risk Early Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Stephen R.D. Johnston, MD, PhD, of the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, and colleagues, an interim analysis in the phase III monarchE trial has shown that adjuvant abemaciclib plus endocrine therapy significantly improved invasive disease...

Lung Cancer

First-Line Atezolizumab Improves Overall Survival vs Chemotherapy in Certain Patients With Metastatic NSCLC

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, of Yale School of Medicine, and colleagues, the phase III IMpower110 trial has shown significantly prolonged overall survival with first-line atezolizumab vs platinum-based chemotherapy in metastatic non–small cell lung ca...

Breast Cancer

Final Efficacy Results From ExteNET Trial of Neratinib in Subgroup of Patients With HR-Positive, HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

In an analysis from the phase III ExteNET trial reported in Clinical Breast Cancer, Arlene Chan, MD, of the Breast Cancer Research Centre of Western Australia and Curtin University, Perth, and colleagues, found significant improvements in efficacy outcomes with administration of neratinib vs placebo...

Multiple Myeloma

Ixazomib Maintenance in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Who Did Not Receive ASCT

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Meletios A. Dimopoulos, MD, of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, and colleagues, the phase III TOURMALINE-MM4 trial has shown that postinduction maintenance with ixazomib prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in pa...

Leukemia
Immunotherapy

Dasatinib/Blinatumomab Produces High Rates of Molecular Response and Survival in Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive ALL

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

In an Italian phase II trial (GIMEMA LAL2116) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Robin Foà, MD, of Sapienza University of Rome, and colleagues, found that first-line induction and consolidation treatment with dasatinib and blinatumomab produced a high rates of molecular response as wel...

Prostate Cancer

Darolutamide Improves Overall Survival in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: ARAMIS Trial

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Karim Fizazi, MD, of the Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, and colleagues, the phase III ARAMIS trial has shown significantly prolonged overall survival with darolutamide vs placebo in men with nonmetastatic castrati...

Head and Neck Cancer

Study Shows Equivalence of Sentinel Node Biopsy vs Neck Node Dissection in Operable Oral or Oropharyngeal Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

In the French phase III Senti-MERORL trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Renaud Garrel, MD, PhD, of the University Hospital Center of Montpellier, France, and colleagues, found that sentinel node biopsy was equivalent to neck lymph node dissection in 2-year neck node recurrence-free...

Health-Care Policy

Medicaid Expansion May Be Linked to Lower Mortality Rates for Three Major Types of Cancer

The ASCO Post Staff  /  November 25, 2020

In states that have expanded Medicaid availability as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), mortality rates for three major types of cancer are significantly lower than in states that have not expanded Medicaid availability, according to a recent study by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute...

Kidney Cancer

No Benefit of Adjuvant Sorafenib in Intermediate- or High-Risk Renal Cell Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger  /  November 25, 2020

In a phase III trial (SORCE) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tim Eisen, FMedSci, FRCP, PhD, of Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and colleagues found no disease-free survival benefit with 3 years of sorafenib vs placebo as adjuvant therapy in patients with renal cel...

Leukemia

ASH Releases New Clinical Practice Guidelines on Treatment of Older Adults With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The ASCO Post Staff  /  November 25, 2020 - Supplement: Hematologic Oncology Almanac

The American Society of Hematology (ASH) has published new guidelines to help older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their health-care providers make critical care decisions, including if and how to proceed with cancer treatment and the need for blood transfusions for those in hospice ca...

Lymphoma

Addition of Rituximab to Standard Chemotherapy Improves Event-Free and Overall Survival in Children With High-Risk, Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

The ASCO Post Staff  /  November 25, 2020 - Supplement: Hematologic Oncology Almanac

In a European Intergroup for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma/Children’s Oncology Group phase III trial, reported in TheNew England Journal of Medicine, -Véronique Minard-Colin, MD, PhD, of Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France, and colleagues found that the addition of rituximab ...

Lymphoma

Study Results With PET-Directed Therapy for Limited-Stage DLBCL

The ASCO Post Staff  /  November 25, 2020 - Supplement: Hematologic Oncology Almanac

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Daniel O. Persky, MD, of the University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, and colleagues, the phase II Intergroup National Clinical Trials Network Study S1001 has shown good outcomes with positron-emission tomography (PET)-directed therapy in patien...

Prostate Cancer

No Biochemical Progression-Free Survival Benefit With Adjuvant vs Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 10, 2020

As reported in The Lancet by Christopher C. Parker, MD, of Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom, and colleagues, initial findings in the phase III RADICALS-RT trial have shown no biochemical progression-free survival benefit with adjuvant radiotherapy vs a policy of salvage rad...

Bladder Cancer
Immunotherapy

DANUBE Trial Reports No Survival Benefit With First-Line Durvalumab in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger  /  November 10, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Thomas Powles, MD, of Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, and colleagues, the phase III DANUBE trial showed that durvalumab monotherapy did not prolong overall survival vs standard chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with metastati...

Solid Tumors

Avelumab Maintenance Therapy Improves Overall Survival in Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger  /  November 10, 2020

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Thomas Powles, MD, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, and colleagues, the phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial found that maintenance treatment with avelumab plus best supportive care significantly improved overall survival v...

Head and Neck Cancer

Selpercatinib Shows Activity in RET Fusion–Positive NSCLC and RET-Altered Thyroid Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 10, 2020

As reported inThe New England Journal of Medicine by Alexander Drilon, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and colleagues and by Lori J. Wirth, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues, the phase I/II LIBRETTO-001 trial has shown marked activity of the RET kinase ...

Head and Neck Cancer

Second-Line Pembrolizumab Improves Overall Survival vs Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Esophageal Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  November 10, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Takashi Kojima, MD, of the National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan, and colleagues, the phase III KEYNOTE-181 trial has shown that second-line pembrolizumab improved overall survival vs the investigator choice of chemotherapy in patient...

Lung Cancer

Capmatinib Active in Advanced NSCLC With MET Exon 14 Skipping Mutations

Matthew Stenger  /  October 25, 2020

As reported inThe New England Journal of Medicine by Jürgen Wolf, MD, of the Center for Integrated Oncology, University Hospital Cologne and University of Cologne, and colleagues, the phase II GEOMETRY mono-1 trial has shown durable responses with the selective MET inhibitor capmatinib in patients w...

Solid Tumors
Multiple Myeloma

ASCO Approves First Joint MSTS/ASTRO/ASCO Guideline on Treatment of Metastatic Carcinoma and Myeloma of the Femur

Jasenka Piljac Žegarac, PhD  /  October 25, 2020

On June 20, 2020, ASCO approved the first joint Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO)/ASCO guideline on the care of patients with metastatic carcinoma and myeloma of the femur.1 Guideline recommendations were based on a systematic review of clinical tri...

Solid Tumors

Activity of the KRAS G12C Inhibitor Sotorasib in KRAS G12C–Mutant Advanced Solid Tumors

Matthew Stenger  /  October 25, 2020

As reported inThe New England Journal of Medicine by David S. Hong, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, and colleagues, a phase I trial (CodeBreak 100) has shown activity of the oral KRAS G12C inhibitor sotorasib in heavily pretreated patients with KRAS G12C–mutant adv...

Issues in Oncology

Pay-for-Performance Program to Reimburse Oncology Practices for Prescribing Evidence-Based Cancer Drugs

The ASCO Post Staff  /  October 25, 2020

A pay-for-performance program that offers enhanced reimbursement to oncology practices for prescribing high-quality, evidence-based cancer drugs increased use of these drugs without significantly changing total spending on care, Penn Medicine researchers reported in a study published in the Journal ...

Skin Cancer

Recurrence-Free Survival Benefit Maintained With Adjuvant Nivolumab vs Ipilimumab in Stage IIIB–IIIC and IV Melanoma

Matthew Stenger  /  October 25, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Paolo A. Ascierto, MD, of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale, Naples, and colleagues, 4-year results of the CheckMate 238 trial show continued benefit of adjuvant nivolumab vs ipilimumab in recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free surviva...

Leukemia

Addition of Nelarabine to Standard Therapy Improves Disease-Free Survival in Newly Diagnosed T-Cell ALL

Matthew Stenger  /  October 10, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kimberly P. Dunsmore, MD, of the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Carilion Clinic, Roanoke, and colleagues, the phase III Children’s Oncology Group AALL0434 trial has shown that the addition of nelarabine to standard therapy improved di...

Prostate Cancer

Rucaparib Produces Durable Responses in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  October 10, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Wassim Abida, MD, PhD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase II TRITON2 trial has shown that the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib produced durable responses in patients with previously treated me...

COVID-19

Impact of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Within 5 Weeks of COVID-19 Diagnosis in Patients With Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  October 10, 2020

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Justin Jee, MD, PhD, of the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), New York, and colleagues found that receipt of cytotoxic chemotherapy within 35 days of COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with ca...

Breast Cancer

Addition of Veliparib to Carboplatin/Paclitaxel in BRCA-Mutated Advanced Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  October 10, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Véronique Diéras, MD, of the Institut Curie, Paris, and Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes, and colleagues, the phase III BROCADE3 trial has shown a significant improvement in progression-free survival with the addition of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhi...

Breast Cancer

Retrospective Analysis From the BIG 2-98 Trial of Adjuvant Docetaxel-Based Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  October 10, 2020

A retrospective analysis from the BIG 2-98 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Christine Desmedt, PhD, of the Laboratory for Translational Breast Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, Belgium, and colleagues showed poorer disease-free and overall survival with increa...

Immunotherapy

City of Hope Scientists Explore Combination Immunotherapy for Solid Tumors

The ASCO Post Staff  /  October 10, 2020

City of Hope scientists have combined two immunotherapies—an oncolytic virus and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy—to target solid tumors that are otherwise difficult to treat with CAR T-cell therapy alone, according to a recent study in Science Translational Medicine.1 In preclinical r...

Issues in Oncology
Colorectal Cancer

Study Finds Racial Disparities in Management of Colorectal Cancer Spreading to the Liver

The ASCO Post Staff  /  October 10, 2020

Colorectal cancer is more prevalent among Black people, a group with the highest rates of death for an illness that is curable if caught early. “The unfortunate reality is that minorities, especially Black people, have a much lower chance of getting life-saving cancer treatment. Health care works wi...

Breast Cancer

Neratinib in Previously TreatedHER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: Point of View From the NALA Trial

Kimberley T. Lee, MD, MHS, and Cesar A. Santa-Maria, MD, MSCI  /  October 10, 2020 - Supplement: Breast Almanac

Neratinib is an oral pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for two indications. The first is as adjuvant treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer following adjuvant trastuzumab therapy. The second is in combination with capeci...

Breast Cancer

Abemaciclib/Fulvestrant/Trastuzumab for Patients With Previously Treated HR-Positive, HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

The ASCO Post Staff  /  October 10, 2020 - Supplement: Breast Almanac

In the phase II monarcHER trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sara M. Tolaney, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, and colleagues, found that the combination of abemaciclib, fulvestrant, and trastuzumab prolonged progression-free survival vs trastuzumab plus standard-of-care chemotherap...

Breast Cancer

Local Recurrence With Radiation Boost in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: HERA Trial Analysis

The ASCO Post Staff  /  October 10, 2020 - Supplement: Breast Almanac

In a retrospective analysis reported in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics, Joseph Abi Jaoude, MD, of the American University of Beirut Medical Center, and colleagues found that a radiation boost did not reduce the risk of local recurrence among women with HER2-posit...

Bladder Cancer

Cigarette Smoking Associated With Worse Outcomes for Patients With Bladder Cancer After Surgery

The ASCO Post Staff  /  September 25, 2020

Patients treated for bladder cancer with a radical cystectomy have worse outcomes if they are smokers, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis by Keck Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC). The study appeared in The Journal of Urology.1 “This study is important because w...

COVID-19

Corticosteroids Improve Survival in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19, According to International Trial

The ASCO Post Staff  /  September 25, 2020

In a demonstration of global collaboration, clinician-scientists have pooled data from 121 hospitals in 8 countries to find that inexpensive, widely available steroids may improve the odds that very sick patients with COVID-19 will survive the illness. The findings were made through the Randomized E...

Gastrointestinal Cancer

Avapritinib Produces High Response Rate in Advanced PDGFRA D842V–Mutant GIST

Matthew Stenger  /  September 25, 2020

As reported inThe Lancet Oncology by Michael C. Heinrich, MD, of the VA Portland Health Care System and the Oregon Health & Science University Knight Cancer Institute, and colleagues, the phase I NAVIGATOR trial showed that the PDGFRA and KIT kinase inhibitor avapritinib produced a high respons...

Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

Phase III NALA Trial Meets Primary Endpoint in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  September 25, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Cristina Saura, MD, of Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, and colleagues, the phase III NALA trial has shown significantly prolonged progression-free survival with the irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib plus capecita...

Lymphoma

Good Outcomes With PET-Directed Therapy for Limited-Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Matthew Stenger  /  September 25, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Daniel O. Persky, MD, of the University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, and colleagues, the phase II Intergroup National Clinical Trials Network Study S1001 has shown good outcomes with positron-emission tomography (PET)-directed therapy in patien...

Skin Cancer

Pembrolizumab Produces Durable Responses in Recurrent or Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger  /  September 25, 2020

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Jean-Jacques Grob, MD, PhD, of Aix-Marseille University, France, and colleagues, the first interim analysis of the phase II KEYNOTE-629 trial has shown the achievement of durable responses with pembrolizumab treatment of recurrent or metastatic cut...

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