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Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy
Genomics/Genetics

Responses to Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Immunotherapy in Patients With MSS Solid Tumors and High Tumor Mutational Burden

In a single-institution study reported in JAMA Oncology, Valero et al found that response rates to anti–PD-1 or anti–PD-L1 treatments in patients with microsatellite-stable (MSS) solid tumors were generally higher among those with high tumor mutational burden (TMB) defined as ≥ 10...

Breast Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Genomics/Genetics

Trends in Germline Genetic Testing in Women Diagnosed With Breast or Ovarian Cancer

In a study of germline genetic testing in women diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Allison W. Kurian, MD, MSc, and colleagues found that undertesting persists in patients with ovarian cancer, and that most pathogenic variants are found in 20 breast ...

Leukemia
Genomics/Genetics

Genetic Mutations Linked to Worse B-Cell ALL Outcomes in Pediatric Hispanic and Latino Patients

A combination of genetic mutations may explain the higher incidence of and poorer outcomes from pediatric leukemia in Hispanic and Latino patients, according to a new study published by Raca et al in the journal Leukemia. Researchers said a novel therapeutic drug combination—as well as testing for...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Germline Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals the Potential Role of Hereditary Predisposition and Therapeutic Implications in SCLC

A study presented by Nobuyuki Takahashi, MD, of the Center for Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute, at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) Singapore (Abstract OA11.05) demonstrated that there may be an inherited ...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Protein-Truncating and Rare Missense Variants in Breast Cancer Risk Genes: Association With Disease Risk

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, members of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) identified the risk of disease associated with germline protein-truncating and rare missense variants of putative susceptibility genes in a large population of breast ...

Gastrointestinal Cancer
Genomics/Genetics
Issues in Oncology
COVID-19

ASCO Names Advance of the Year: Molecular Profiling Drives Progress in Gastrointestinal Cancers

Molecular profiling allows clinicians to identify the molecular and genetic signatures that help to deliver treatments that are highly specific to a tumor. This tool has made possible a number of advances in the past year that are improving care for patients with gastrointestinal cancers. In...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Prevalence of and Risk Associated With Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes: U.S. Population-Based Study

In a U.S. population-based, case-control study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Hu et al identified the prevalence of and risk associated with germline pathogenic variants in established and candidate breast cancer predisposition genes. Study Details The study involved 32,247 women...

Genomics/Genetics
Colorectal Cancer
Lung Cancer

Prevalence of KRAS G12C Somatic Mutations by Cancer Type, Race, and Sex

In a study reported in a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Nassar et al identified the prevalence of the formerly “undruggable” KRAS G12C mutation across tumor types, race, and sex. As stated by the investigators, a recently reported early-phase clinical trial has shown...

Genomics/Genetics
Solid Tumors

Capivasertib for AKT1 E17K–Mutated Metastatic Cancers: NCI-MATCH Subprotocol EAY131-Y

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Kevin Kalinsky, MD, MS, and colleagues, the NCI-MATCH trial’s phase II subprotocol EAY131-Y has shown activity of the pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib in a range of metastatic tumors with an AKT1 E17K mutation. The NCI-MATCH trial, which opened in 2015, is an...

leukemia
genomics/genetics

Sara Zarnegar-Lumley, MD, on AML: Prognostic Effects of IDH Mutations

Sara Zarnegar-Lumley, MD, of Vanderbilt University Medical Center, discusses an analysis of a large cohort confirming the age-associated prevalence of IDH mutations in patients, across the age spectrum, with acute myeloid leukemia and therapeutic implications. IDH-mutated genes were found to co-occur frequently with other mutations, some of which favorably impact outcomes in patients younger than 60 (Abstract 388).

Lung Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Immunotherapy
Genomics/Genetics

FDA Pipeline: Two Reviews in NSCLC, Plus Prescribing Information Update for Darolutamide

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Priority Review to lorlatinib in ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and Breakthrough Therapy designation to the combination of tiragolumab plus atezolizumab in NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression. The FDA also updated the...

leukemia
genomics/genetics

Christian Marinaccio, PhD Candidate: Genetic Driver May Play a Role in Progression of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms to AML

Christian Marinaccio, PhD Candidate, of Northwestern University, describes research he is conducting in the laboratory of John D. Crispino, PhD, which shows the loss of the tumor suppressor gene LKB1/STK11 facilitates progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms to acute myeloid leukemia (Abstract 1).

Skin Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

New Study Explores the Use of Focused Ultradeep DNA Sequencing to Quantify Skin Cancer Risk

Recent research has shed new light on the carcinogenic effect of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, laying the groundwork for improvements in skin cancer risk stratification and prevention. A study published by Lei Wei, PhD, and colleagues in Science Advances detailed a method to measure the...

Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Multiancestry Meta-analysis of Prostate Cancer Genetics

A research team has published findings from a study that brought together data from genomic prostate cancer studies. Including more than 200,000 men of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic ancestry from around the world, the study is reportedly the largest, most diverse genetic analysis ever...

Bladder Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Germline-Somatic Interactions in Advanced Urothelial Cancer and Their Role in Disease Progression

In a study reported in Nature Communications, Bishoy M. Faltas, MD, of the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, and colleagues identified common germline-somatic variant interactions in advanced urothelial cancer, with these...

Multiple Myeloma
Genomics/Genetics

Identifying Multiple Myeloma Prognostic Subgroups With Distinct Genetic and Clinical Features

Multiple myeloma is the second most common blood cancer, after non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnosed in the United States. In 2020, it is estimated that about 32,270 people will be diagnosed with the cancer, and despite advances in more effective treatments, nearly 13,000 will die of the disease.1...

breast cancer
genomics/genetics
immunotherapy

Joyce V. Lee, PhD, on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: MYC as a Predictor of Treatment Response

Joyce V. Lee, PhD, of the University of California, San Francisco, discusses data that suggest the MYC oncogene may indicate whether a patient with triple-negative breast cancer will respond to immunotherapy. Dr. Lee’s study is the first to describe MYC downregulation of MHC-I and to demonstrate translatable approaches that may overcome immune evasion (Abstract GS1-08).

Bladder Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Spectrum of Germline-Somatic Interactions in Advanced Urothelial Cancer

In a study reported in Nature Communications, Vosoughi et al identified common germline-somatic variant interactions in advanced urothelial cancer, with these interactions appearing to play a central role in disease progression. As stated by the investigators, “The prevalence and the biologic...

Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Interference of Clonal Hematopoiesis in DNA Repair Genes With Prostate Cancer Plasma Cell-Free DNA Testing

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Jensen and colleagues found that clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) involving DNA repair genes can interfere with prostate cancer plasma cell-free DNA testing used to determine eligibility for poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor...

Hematologic Malignancies
Genomics/Genetics

ASH 2020: Early Signs of Risk for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms May Appear in Childhood or in Utero

Genetic mutations linked to myeloproliferative neoplasms may emerge in childhood or even in utero, decades before they cause cancer, according to a late-breaking abstract presented today at the 2020 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting & Exposition by Jyoti Nangalia, MBBChir, and ...

hematologic malignancies
genomics/genetics

Jyoti Nangalia, MBBChir, on MPN: A New Paradigm for the Development of Blood Cancer?

Jyoti Nangalia, MBBChir, of Wellcome Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge, discusses how her team used large-scale whole-genome sequencing to precisely time the origins of a blood cancer­­­­­ and measure how it grew. The information could provide opportunities for early diagnosis and intervention (Abstract LBA-1).

Multiple Myeloma
Genomics/Genetics

ASH 2020: Multiple Myeloma Patient Similarity Network Identifies Prognostic Subgroups With Distinct Genetic and Clinical Features

An analysis by Bhalla et al of multiomics data from newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma has identified 3 main patient groups and 12 prognostic subgroups (as well as potential vulnerabilities in each subgroup) based on five data types generated from genomic and transcriptomic patient...

Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Study Shows Regional Variation in Genomic Testing for Men With Prostate Cancer

A study published by Michael S. Leapman, MD, and colleagues in JAMA Oncology found substantial regional variation in the use of genomic testing for prostate cancer, raising questions about access and other factors that might promote rapid adoption of new cancer technologies. “Little was known...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Native American Ancestry May Impact Somatic Alterations Among Latin American Patients With Lung Cancer

A research brief by Carrot-Zhang et al published in Cancer Discovery investigating inherited lung cancer risk—especially in nonsmokers—in Latin America has found that independent of smoking status, variation in EGFR and KRAS mutation frequency in Latin American patients with lung cancer was...

Breast Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Genomics/Genetics

Trends in Positive BRCA Test Results Among Women Aged 65 and Older in the United States

In a study reported in JAMA Network Open, Guo et al found that the proportion of positive BRCA genetic test results markedly declined between 2008 and 2018 among women aged ≥ 65 years in the United States, with the trend likely reflecting what the investigators call a loosening of testing criteria...

Genomics/Genetics

Analysis Seeks to Identify Characteristics of 'Exceptional Responders' to Cancer Therapy

In a comprehensive analysis of patients with cancer who had exceptional responses to therapy, researchers identified molecular changes in the patients’ tumors that may explain some of these outcomes. The results, published by Wheeler et al in Cancer Cell, demonstrated that genomic characterizations ...

Breast Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Genomics/Genetics

Screening Younger Women for Variants Linked to Breast and Ovarian Cancers May Be Cost-Effective

Population-wide screening for genetic variants linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers may be cost-effective in women between the ages of 20 and 35, according to a study published by Guzauskas et al in JAMA Network Open. However, screening for older women was not cost-effective, the...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Paclitaxel Plus Trastuzumab With or Without Lapatinib in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-up and Genomic Analysis

In a 7-year follow-up of the phase III CALGB 40601/Alliance neoadjuvant trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fernandez-Martinez et al found that paclitaxel combined with trastuzumab/lapatinib was associated with improved survival outcomes vs paclitaxel/trastuzumab in women with...

Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

FDA Expands Approval of Companion Diagnostic for Olaparib in Prostate Cancer

On November 9, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved FoundationOne Liquid CDx to be used as a companion diagnostic for olaparib. As a companion diagnostic, FoundationOne Liquid CDx will use a blood-based biopsy to identify patients with BRCA1, BRCA2, and/or ATM alterations and...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Olaparib for Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer and Mutations in Homologous Recombination–Related Genes

In a phase II Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) study (TBCRC 048; Olaparib Expanded) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nadine M. Tung, MD, and colleagues found that olaparib produced high response rates in patients with metastatic breast cancer and germline PALB2...

Immunotherapy
Supportive Care
Genomics/Genetics

Study Identifies Genetic Variants Linked to Bevacizumab-Induced Adverse Events

Researchers have found two common genetic variants that may be used to predict whether patients with cancer may have severe adverse events when treated with the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. A genome-wide association study—according to researchers, the largest such study in patients...

Genomics/Genetics

Study Finds Universal Genetic Testing Uncovers More Inherited Mutations vs Guideline-Based Genetic Testing

Universal genetic testing may uncover inherited genetic mutations, and could individualize cancer therapies, improve survival, and strengthen the use of precision medicine. In a new study published by N. Jewel Samadder, MD, and colleagues in JAMA Oncology, researchers conducted genetic testing in...

Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Study Finds Distinct Genomic Alterations May Contribute to More Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Black Men

A study by Liu et al published in Molecular Cancer Research investigated why Black men appear to be more likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer than White men. Researchers found that prostate tumors in Black men had higher frequencies of distinct genetic alterations, which may contribute to...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Breast Cancer Risk and Disease-Causing Genetic Mutations in Women Older Than 65

Women with breast cancer onset after age 65 often do not qualify for genetic testing, yet little is known about the frequency of disease-causing mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes in this population. In a new study, researchers investigated the prevalence of disease-causing variants in ...

Genomics/Genetics

Next-Generation BRAF Inhibitor Shows Activity in Phase I/II Trial

A new drug designed to treat cancers in patients with an altered BRAF gene showed activity and had a favorable safety profile in an early-phase trial. These findings were presented by Janku et al at the 32nd EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics (Abstract LBA-05)....

Breast Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

FDA Approves Companion Diagnostic for Three Targeted Therapies for Advanced Ovarian, Breast, and Non–Small Cell Lung Cancers

On October 27, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the FoundationOne Liquid CDx test for three new companion diagnostic indications to help match patients who may benefit from treatment with specific FDA-approved targeted therapies. The new indications are for alpelisib (Piqray) in ...

Genomics/Genetics

Targeted Inhibitor of Mutant KRAS Gene Shows Activity in Early Trial

Adagrasib (MRTX849), a novel agent that targets a mutated form of the KRAS gene—the most commonly altered oncogene in human cancers, and one long considered “undruggable”—caused tumor shrinkage in most patients in a clinical trial, with manageable side effects, researchers reported at the 32nd...

Solid Tumors
Genomics/Genetics

Companion Diagnostic to Identify NTRK Fusions in Patients With Solid Tumors Eligible for Treatment With Larotrectinib Approved by the FDA

On October 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the next-generation sequencing–based FoundationOne CDx test as a companion diagnostic to identify fusions in the neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) genes NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 in DNA isolated from tumor tissue specimens ...

Lung Cancer
Kidney Cancer
Leukemia
Solid Tumors
Gastroesophageal Cancer
Gastrointestinal Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Genomics/Genetics
Immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Priority Reviews in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer, Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma; Fast Track Designations in CLL and Solid Tumors

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Priority Review to treatments for EGFR-mutant lung cancer and advanced renal cell carcinoma; granted Fast Track designation to agents in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors; and more....

Genomics/Genetics
CNS Cancers

Radiation-Induced Genetic Deletions May Be Associated With Poorer Patient Outcomes

Treatment of diffuse gliomas with radiotherapy resulted in an increased number of genomic small deletions that make up a unique signature, according to findings presented at the Molecular Analysis for Precision Oncology (MAP) Congress 2020 (Abstract 2MO). Furthermore, an increased burden of...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Do Patients With Early-Stage NSCLC Have a Higher Tumor Mutational Burden Than Those With More Advanced Disease?

The tumors of patients with stage I and II non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrated a generally higher tumor mutational burden and more often displayed the mutational signature associated with tobacco smoking than those of patients with more advanced disease, according to findings presented...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Fragment Analysis as a MET Exon 14 Screening Strategy in NSCLC Tumors

Comparison of two techniques used in screening non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor samples demonstrated that fragment analysis could detect large MET exon 14 skipping deletions that were missed by next-generation sequencing, according to findings presented at the Molecular Analysis for...

Genomics/Genetics

Molecular Profiles and Actionable Alterations Identified in the NCI-MATCH Trial

In a report in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Keith T. Flaherty, MD, and colleagues describe the current status of and findings from the ongoing NCI-MATCH (National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice) trial. The aim of the trial is to determine the likelihood of identifying...

Issues in Oncology
Breast Cancer
Colorectal Cancer
Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics
Multiple Myeloma
Pancreatic Cancer

Trends to Watch in Early-Onset Cancer Among Young Adults

Although cancer incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined are considerably lower in younger adults than older adults, a disturbing pattern is beginning to emerge in the development of early-onset cancers, typically diagnosed in older patients, occurring in younger adults. The rising...

Genomics/Genetics

Cancer Therapy Based on Molecular Tumor Board Recommendations: Improvement in Outcomes?

Patients receiving care for advanced cancer based on the recommendations of a molecular tumor board were more likely to survive or experience a longer period without disease progression, according to results from a study published by Kato et al in Nature Communications. Razelle Kurzrock, MD,...

Genomics/Genetics

Pilot Study Finds Liquid Biopsy Delivers Results Faster Than Tissue Biopsy

A pilot study comparing liquid biopsy with tissue-based testing showed that liquid biopsy delivered results approximately 10 days faster than tissue biopsy, according to research presented by Nir Peled, MD, PhD, and colleagues at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Liquid Biopsy May Be a Timely and Effective Testing Method for Patients With NSCLC: Findings From Canada

Next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from blood samples may improve diagnostic testing in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and may also be faster and less expensive than standard tissue profiling, according to research presented by Natasha B. Leighl, ...

Gastrointestinal Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Genetic Testing May Be Cost-Effective for Newly Diagnosed Patients With GIST

In a paper published by Banerjee et al in JAMA Network Open, researchers reported that genetic testing is cost-effective and beneficial for newly diagnosed patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a type of soft-tissue sarcoma that develops in specialized nerve cells in the...

Kidney Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Is ctDNA Effective in Detecting Genomic Alterations in Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer?

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis is a minimally invasive genomic assessment tool utilizing targeted next-generation sequencing of peripheral blood. At the ESMO Virtual Congress 2020, Zengin et al reported genomic results from a large cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma...

Genomics/Genetics
Immunotherapy

Nivolumab Shows Activity in edPOLE-Mutated, MMR-Proficient Advanced Cancers

Nivolumab monotherapy showed high response and disease control rates in patients with pathogenic exonuclease domain POLE (edPOLE)-mutated, mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient advanced tumors containing confirmed pathogenic mutations, according to findings presented by Benoit J.C. Rousseau, MD, PhD, of ...

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