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issues in oncology

American Cancer Society Sets 2035 Cancer Mortality Reduction Goals

The American Cancer Society (ACS) has set a challenge goal to reduce overall cancer mortality 40% between 2015 and 2035—a goal set by applying favorable cancer mortality trends among college graduates to the population as a whole. A report on the goal was published by Ma et al in CA: A...

prostate cancer

ASTRO and AUA Announce Updates to Joint Clinical Guidance for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Urological Association (AUA) recently announced updates to their joint clinical guideline on adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy in patients with and without evidence of prostate cancer recurrence to include new...

cns cancers
symptom management

Treatment-Related Ototoxicity and Reading Impairment in Pediatric Patients With Embryonal Brain Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Olivier et al found that pediatric patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss associated with the treatment of embryonal brain tumors experienced greater reading difficulties over time. The study involved data from 260 children and...

breast cancer
gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in Advanced HER2-Positive Gastric and Breast Cancers

Two phase I studies reported in The Lancet Oncology indicate activity of the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab deruxtecan in advanced HER2-positive gastric cancer and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201a) is a ...

lung cancer

Long-Term Results With Local Consolidative Therapy vs Maintenance Therapy or Observation in Oligometastatic NSCLC

In long-term follow-up of a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gomez et al confirmed superior outcomes with local consolidative therapy vs maintenance therapy or observation in patients with oligometastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the open-label,...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Predicting Response to Immunotherapy in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

According to a study published by Kacew et al in the European Journal of Cancer, copy number alterations in the chromosome 3q arm may be linked to immunotherapy response in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. In fact, this and other genetic markers may prove to be useful...

cns cancers
solid tumors
leukemia
multiple myeloma
sarcoma

FDA Pipeline: Designations in Myeloma, Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, and Kaposi Sarcoma, Plus ODAC Votes

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted designations in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma; and the FDA’s Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) held votes on treatments for tenosynovial giant cell tumor and acute...

hepatobiliary cancer

Rate of 'Textbook Outcomes' in Curative-Intent Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a multi-institutional international analysis reported in JAMA Surgery, Merath et al found that a textbook outcome was achieved in a minority of patients undergoing curative-intent resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details The study involved data on 687 patients from 15 major...

issues in oncology

Impact of Establishment of Cancer Urgent Care Clinic on Emergency Department Visits

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Hong et al found that the establishment of a cancer urgent care clinic slowed the increasing rate of visits to regional emergency departments among adults newly diagnosed with cancer.  Study Details The study involved data on 33,316...

issues in oncology

Control Arm Quality in Randomized Oncology Trials Leading to FDA Approval

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Hilal et al found that 17% of recent cancer drug approvals based on randomized controlled trials featured a suboptimal control arm. Study Details The study involved analysis of a total of 145 studies that led to 143 drug approvals between January 2013 and...

bladder cancer

Does Quitting Smoking Affect Risk of Bladder Cancer in Postmenopausal Women?

A large study of postmenopausal women indicated that quitting cigarette smoking was associated with significantly reduced risk of bladder cancer. The most significant reduction in risk occurred in the first 10 years after quitting, with a modest but continued decline in later years. These results...

symptom management

FDA Approves Dalteparin Sodium for VTE in Pediatric Patients

On May 16, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dalteparin sodium (Fragmin) to reduce the recurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric patients 1 month of age and older. This is the first FDA-approved therapy to treat VTE in pediatric patients....

leukemia
lymphoma

FDA Approves Chemotherapy-Free Regimen, Venetoclax Plus Obinutuzumab, as First-Line Treatment for CLL/SLL

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved venetoclax (Venclexta) in combination with obinutuzumab (Gazyva) for the treatment of people with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The approval is based on the results of the...

gastroesophageal cancer

2019 ASCO: Reduced Chemotherapy Dosages in Elderly Patients With Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer

A phase III randomized clinical study evaluating the optimum dose of a combination chemotherapy regimen of oxaliplatin and capecitabine in the treatment of advanced gastroesophageal cancer in frail and elderly patients has found that the patients prescribed the lowest dose tested experienced less...

solid tumors

2019 ASCO: Nearly One-Quarter of Participants in the Pediatric MATCH Trial Have an Actionable Molecular Alteration

A study investigating the frequency of targetable molecular alterations in pediatric cancer among patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute–Children’s Oncology Group Pediatric Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (MATCH) trial has found that about one-quarter of patients with...

cns cancers

2019 ASCO: Entrectinib in Children and Adolescents With Recurrent or Refractory Solid or Central Nervous System Tumors

A phase I/IB study evaluating the activity of entrectinib in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors, has found that the agent produced responses in children with tumors harboring target aberrations...

breast cancer

2019 ASCO: Low-Fat Diet May Reduce the Risk of Death From Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. In 2019, the American Cancer Society estimates that about 268,600 new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed in women, and about 41,760 women will die from their disease. ...

multiple myeloma

2019 ASCO: Lenalidomide May Reduce the Risk of Smoldering Multiple Myeloma Progressing to Active Disease

A phase III randomized trial (E3A06) by Lonial et al testing the effect of single-agent lenalidomide vs observation in patients with intermediate- or high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma has found that lenalidomide significantly reduces the risk of smoldering multiple myeloma progressing to active ...

FDA Approves Avelumab/Axitinib Combination for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

On May 14, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved avelumab (Bavencio) in combination with axitinib (Inlyta) for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This is the first FDA approval for an anti–programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)...

colorectal cancer
immunotherapy

Tumor Mutational Burden as a Marker of Response to Immunotherapy in MSI-High Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Foundational research recently published by Schrock et al in Annals of Oncology may help patients with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer decide whether to choose immunotherapy or chemotherapy as their first treatment option. “Immunotherapy is the new,...

solid tumors

AUA Releases New Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Early-Stage Testicular Cancer

Recently, the American Urological Association (AUA) released a new clinical guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of early-stage testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men ages 20 to 40. Although it is a less common form of cancer, about 9,600 American men...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Alcohol Intake and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer

As reported by Downer et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, findings from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study indicate that moderate alcohol consumption is safe for patients with prostate cancer. Study Details The prospective cohort study used data from the Health Professionals...

breast cancer

Addition of Tucidinostat to Exemestane in Advanced Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In the Chinese phase III ACE trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jiang et al found that the addition of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor tucidinostat to exemestane improved progression-free survival in postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer whose...

breast cancer
lung cancer
skin cancer

Lifetime Risk of Brain Metastases in Elderly Survivors of Breast, Lung, and Skin Cancers

Elderly survivors of breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma face risk of brain metastasis later in life, and may require extra surveillance in the years following initial cancer treatment, according to results of a study published by Ascha et al in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, &...

gynecologic cancer

Study Finds New Candidate Susceptibility Genes for High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

A team of researchers have identified 34 genes that are associated with an increased risk for developing the earliest stages of ovarian cancer. The findings, published by Gusev et al in Nature Genetics, may help identify women who are at highest risk of developing ovarian cancer and pave the way...

head and neck cancer

HPV DNA and Outcomes After Primary Treatment for Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

In a two-institution study reported in JAMA Oncology, Fakhry et al found that persistent detection of tumor-type human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA after primary treatment for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas was associated with poorer outcomes. Study Details The prospective study...

breast cancer

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With or Without Use of Preoperative Lymphoscintigraphy in Early Breast Cancer

In a German/Swiss phase III trial (SenSzi [GBG80]) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kuemmel et al found that preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was not associated with an increased number of histologically detected sentinel lymph nodes with sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with early...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Axitinib Plus Pembrolizumab in Advanced Sarcomas

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Wilky et al found evidence of activity of axitinib plus pembrolizumab in advanced sarcomas, including alveolar soft-part sarcoma. Study Details The study involved 33 patients with advanced or metastatic sarcomas, including alveolar soft-part...

hepatobiliary cancer

ARRS 2019: Percutaneous Liver Ablation Intervention vs Surgery for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Compared to surgery, percutaneous liver ablation interventions in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were associated with lower in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs, according to a study presented by Sodagari et al at the American Roentgen Ray Society...

hepatobiliary cancer

ARRS 2019: Arterial-Phase Hyperenhancement for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated With SBRT

Although arterial-phase hyperenhancement is a key feature of untreated or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, standard response assessment such as modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) should be used with caution, particularly in the early phases after stereotactic body...

breast cancer

ARRS 2019: Short-Interval Follow-up MRI in Identifying Early-Stage Breast Cancer

When appropriate, short-interval follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify early-stage breast cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies, according to a study presented by Lamb et al at the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) 2019 Annual Meeting (Abstract 2367). Utilization of ...

bladder cancer

Ultradeep Sequencing of Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Bladder Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Christensen et al found that identification of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) by ultradeep sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA was highly prognostic for outcome in bladder cancer and permitted early detection of relapse.  The study...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Addition of Decitabine to Camrelizumab in Relapsed or Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a single-center phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nie et al found a higher complete response rate with the addition of low-dose decitabine to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor camrelizumab in anti–PD-1 treatment–naive patients with...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Ramucirumab for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

On May 10, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ramucirumab (Cyramza) as a single agent for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who have an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level ≥ 400 ng/mL and have been previously treated with sorafenib. REACH-2 Trial Approval was based on the...

breast cancer
solid tumors

FDA Pipeline: Designations in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, ctDNA Detection

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted a Fast Track designation to a treatment for CCR5-positive metastatic triple-negative breast cancer; granted Breakthrough Device designation to a test for the postsurgical detection and quantification of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA);...

solid tumors

PRRT Shows Long-Term Effectiveness in Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumors

A 12-year retrospective clinical study of patients who received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for malignant neuroendocrine tumors demonstrated the long-term effectiveness of this treatment, which also allows patients to maintain a high quality of life. The study was published by...

issues in oncology

IMPACT Study, Aimed at Increasing Diversity Among Clinical Trial Participants, Launches

The University of Southern California (USC) Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center has launched a study to determine how financial assistance for costs associated with clinical trial participation might increase enrollment, particularly among low-income patients and racial and ethnic minorities....

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Anti-BCMA CAR T-Cell Therapy in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In a phase I trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Raje et al found that bb2121, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), was safe in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Investigators reported ...

head and neck cancer

Oropharyngeal Cancer Trends in White Men

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tota et al found that there has been a reduction in the increase of oropharyngeal cancer among young white men, with a high number of cases projected among older white men in coming years. As stated by the investigators, “Human...

skin cancer

Link Between Skin Cancer Diagnosis and Health-Care Screening Practices

According to findings published by Drucker et al in JAMA Dermatology, patients undergoing health-care screening practices for skin cancer have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed—particularly for squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas—than those who do not. Researchers...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

PD-1 Inhibitor–Associated Cutaneous Toxicity and Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Melanoma

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Quach et al found that cutaneous toxicities related to anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) treatment—specifically, vitiligo and rash—were associated with improved clinical outcomes in advanced melanoma. Study Details The...

health-care policy
cost of care

AMA Commends Final CMS Rule for Requiring Pricing Information in TV Drug Ads

Today, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar announced a final rule from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) that will require direct-to-consumer television advertisements for prescription pharmaceuticals covered by Medicare or Medicaid to include the list price—the ...

issues in oncology

WINTHER Trial: Genomic and Transcriptomic Profiling May Translate to New Therapeutic Options for Patients With Advanced Cancer

Published by Rodon et al in Nature Medicine, results of the WINTHER study showed that RNA profiling together with DNA testing matches more patients with advanced cancer to personalized therapies than DNA profiling for tumor mutations alone. The WINTHER trial aimed to...

breast cancer

ASBrS 2019: Comprehensive Postoperative Mastectomy Home Recovery Programs Show Patient Benefit

Comprehensive postoperative mastectomy home recovery programs significantly increased same-day patient discharge with no decrease in quality of care, according to two new studies presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS). “Research demonstrates the...

pain management

Single-Fraction Stereotactic vs Multifraction Radiotherapy for Pain Relief in Predominantly Nonspinal Bone Metastases

In a single-center phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Nguyen et al found that single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) was associated with improved pain relief vs conventional multifraction radiotherapy in patients with mostly nonspinal bone metastases. In the noninferiority...

colorectal cancer

Impact of Consensus Molecular Subtype on Outcome in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lenz et al found that consensus molecular subtype of colorectal cancers was highly prognostic for outcomes in patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced disease in the phase III CALGB/SWOG 80405/Alliance trial. CALGB/SWOG 80405...

breast cancer

Final Analysis of the HannaH Trial: Perioperative Subcutaneous vs Intravenous Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Jackisch et al, the final analysis of the phase III HannaH trial indicated comparable efficacy and safety of perioperative subcutaneous (SC) vs intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in ERBB2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. Earlier reports from the trial showed similar...

bladder cancer

AUA 2019: Studies Highlight Potential Bladder Cancer Risks

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), exposure to certain environmental factors, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer, according to new data presented this week at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA). The...

breast cancer
pain management

ASBrS 2019: Opioid Management Program Reduces Post–Breast Surgery Narcotic Use

A breast surgery opioid prescription management program that analyzed current physician patterns and provided education and guidelines successfully reduced the volume of narcotics given postoperatively to patients at a large institution. These results were presented by Fan et al at the Annual...

breast cancer

ASBrS 2019: Retrospective Study of Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Outcomes Over Time

Nipple-sparing mastectomy complication and implant failure rates have decreased significantly since introduction of the procedure, while the patient population undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy increasingly includes more advanced cancers and women traditionally considered at risk for...

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