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Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

Eftilagimod Alpha Plus Paclitaxel May Improve Survival in HR-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: AIPAC Trial

The addition of the LAG-3 protein eftilagimod alpha to paclitaxel led to a significant improvement in overall survival in younger patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, according to data presented by Hans Wildiers, MD, and colleagues at the Society for ...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Study Examines Safety and Efficacy of Retifanlimab in Recurrent MSI-H/dMMR Endometrial Cancer

The novel PD-1 inhibitor retifanlimab appears to be safe and effective in patients with pretreated, recurrent microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) or deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) endometrial cancer, according to according to data presented by Berton-Rigaud et al at the Society for...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

Sotigalimab Plus Nivolumab in Anti–PD-1/PD-L1–Refractory Melanoma

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma, but a significant number of patients still fail to respond to anti–PD-1 therapy. The novel combination of sotigalimab, an anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab could help address this...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

Vidutolimad Plus Pembrolizumab in PD-1 Refractory Melanoma

The addition of vidutolimod to pembrolizumab could help overcome resistance to immune checkpoint inhibition in patients with metastatic or unresectable cutaneous melanoma, according to data presented by John M. Kirkwood, MD, and colleagues at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2021...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Immunotherapy

Novel Vaccine Platform Plus Pembrolizumab May Boost Immune Response in Advanced HCC

A novel vaccine platform administered in combination with pembrolizumab appears to be safe and effective in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to data presented by Mark Yarchoan, MD, and colleagues at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2021 Annual Meeting (

Leukemia
Lymphoma
Immunotherapy

FDA Approves Rituximab Plus Chemotherapy for Several Pediatric Hematologic Malignancies

On December 2, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved rituximab (Rituxan) in combination with chemotherapy for pediatric patients (≥ 6 months to < 18 years old) with previously untreated, advanced-stage, CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma,...

Leukemia
Immunotherapy

Next-Generation Sequencing of Bone Marrow DNA to Predict Relapse Following CAR T-Cell Therapy in Patients With ALL

Next-generation sequencing of bone marrow samples from pediatric and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with tisagenlecleucel was more accurate in predicting relapse than flow cytometry and monitoring of B-cell aplasia, according to the results from a study by...

Breast Cancer

To Elect or Forgo Radiation Therapy: An Informed Decision for Patients With Breast Cancer

Advances in treating breast cancer “increasingly create opportunities to consider where radiation therapy might safely be omitted,” Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil, told participants at the 2021 Lynn Sage Breast Cancer Symposium.1 “But, I would encourage us,” she continued, “not to assume that women who...

CNS Cancers
Genomics/Genetics

Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib in BRAF V600E–Mutant High- and Low-Grade Glioma

In an interim analysis of a phase II basket trial (ROAR) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Patrick Y. Wen, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib produced responses in adult patients with recurrent or progressive BRAF V600E–mutant high-grade and low-grade glioma.

...

Palliative Care

Managing Illness Expectations in Patients With Advanced Cancer

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Sigler et al found that an oncology nurse–led primary palliative care intervention known as CONNECT did not increase realistic illness expectations among patients with advanced cancer.

Study Details

The study involved adults with advanced solid tumors...

Colorectal Cancer

Trends in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer Among Black and White Individuals Aged 40 to 49 Years From 2000 to 2017

In a study reported in JAMA Network Open, Montminy et al found that the incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma in people aged 40 to 49 years in the United States has increased in White individuals and remained stable in Black individuals between 2000 and 2017, with incidence rates being equivalent...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

Immunomodulatory Effects of Neoadjuvant Nivolumab, Chemotherapy in NSCLC

The immunomodulatory effects of neoadjuvant immune-based treatments for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are becoming clearer, in part due to data presented by Schmidt et al at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2021 Annual Meeting (Abstract 962).

The first integrated analysis of...

Pancreatic Cancer
Immunotherapy

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Plus Pembrolizumab Shows No Effect on Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Pancreatic Cancer

The addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiation to the checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab has failed to overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment of pancreatic cancer, according to data presented by Osama E. Rahma, MD, and colleagues at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2021 Annual...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Phase I Trial Investigates HER-Targeted CAR-M for HER2-Overexpressing Solid Tumors

HER2-targeted chimeric antigen receptor macrophages (CAR-M) could be the next cell therapies to treat advanced solid tumors overexpressing HER2, according to data presented by Kim A. Reiss, MD, and colleagues at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2021 Annual Meeting (Abstract 951).

...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy
Genomics/Genetics

Keith T. Flaherty, MD, on Results From the DREAMseq Trial

Invited discussant of the phase III DREAMseq trial, Keith T. Flaherty, MD, said the findings still leave room for nuanced decision-making.1 Dr. Flaherty is Professor of Medicine at Harvard and Director of the Henri and Belinda Termeer Center for Targeted Therapy at the Massachusetts General...

Symptom Management
Supportive Care

Fosnetupitant vs Fosaprepitant for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

In a Japanese phase III noninferiority trial (CONSOLE) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hata et al found that fosnetupitant was noninferior to fosaprepitant in preventing nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (both in combination with palonosetron and ...

COVID-19

Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cancer Imaging

Significant decreases in computed tomography (CT) imaging for cancer persisted even after the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020—delaying diagnosis and treatment and raising the possibility of more advanced cancers and poorer outcomes for patients, according to a study presented at the...

Breast Cancer

Study Examines the Effect of Breast MRI on Short-Term Quality of Life in Women With DCIS

In a substudy of the ECOG-ACRIN E4112 cohort trial reported in JAMA Network Open, Fazeli et al found that approximately half of women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pretreatment planning experienced fear or anxiety before and during the...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy
Genomics/Genetics

DREAMseq Trial: In Advanced Melanoma With BRAF Mutations, Start With Immunotherapy

 In the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma containing BRAF mutations, initial treatment with an immunotherapy combination achieved superior overall survival compared with targeted therapy in the phase III DREAMseq trial, also known as the ECOG-ACRIN EA6134 trial. The results were reported ...

Lymphoma

First-Line Ibrutinib/Rituximab in Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma Aged 65 and Older

In a single-institution phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jain et al found that chemotherapy-free treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and rituximab produced high overall and complete response rates in patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma aged ≥...

Leukemia

COG AAML1331 Trial: Arsenic Trioxide and All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Pediatric Patients With APL

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Kutny et al, the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) AAML1331 trial has shown that treatment with arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with no maintenance therapy produced high event-free and overall survival rates in pediatric patients with acute...

Multiple Myeloma

FDA Approves Triplet Therapy for Previously Treated Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

On November 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved daratumumab and hyaluronidase-fihj (Darzalex Faspro) in combination with carfilzomib (Kyprolis) plus dexamethasone for adult patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three prior lines of...

Breast Cancer

Long-Term Follow-up of monarchE: Benefit of Abemaciclib Plus Endocrine Therapy Maintained in Early High-Risk Breast Cancer

Longer-term follow-up of the global phase III monarchE trial showed an increasing benefit for adding abemaciclib to endocrine therapy in the adjuvant treatment of early high-risk hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, regardless of Ki67 index. The latest findings were reported at a ...

Skin Cancer

Immunotherapy Followed by Targeted Therapy Yields Greater Overall Survival in Patients With BRAF V600–Mutated Advanced Melanoma

Patients with BRAF V600–mutated advanced melanoma who received an immunotherapy regimen of nivolumab/ipilimumab followed by targeted therapy with dabrafenib/trametinib experienced greater overall survival (72%) compared with patients receiving the converse sequence (52%). According to the study...

Symptom Management

Digital Symptom Monitoring System May Improve Patients’ Symptom Control and Physical Function During Cancer Therapy

A digital symptom monitoring system in which patients undergoing cancer treatment could report symptoms through weekly at-home surveys resulted in better symptom control and physical function, as well as improved communication with their medical team, according to results from a study by Basch et...

Breast Cancer

Aditya Bardia, MD, MPH, Comments on Findings From monarchE

The invited discussant of monarchE,1 Aditya Bardia, MD, MPH, Director, Breast Cancer Research, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, commented: “Based on a hazard ratio of 0.69 for invasive disease–free survival, the results are statistically significant and clinically...

Immunotherapy

Can Antihistamines Influence Response to Immunotherapy?

New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that treatment with antihistamines was associated with improved responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The preclinical study, published by Li et al in Cancer Cell, demonstrated that the histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) acts...

Lymphoma

High Response Rate With Venetoclax in Previously Treated Patients With Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Castillo et al found that venetoclax produced a high major response rate in previously treated patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia.

As stated by the investigators, “BCL2 is overexpressed and confers prosurvival signaling in ...

Genomics/Genetics

Cancer Incidence and Patterns in Individuals With Pathogenic/Likely Pathogenic Germline TP53 Variants

In an observational cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, de Andrade et al identified cancer incidence and patterns in individuals meeting criteria for Li-Fraumeni syndrome on the basis of presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline TP53 variants.

As stated by the investigators,...

Kidney Cancer

Belzutifan Shows Activity in Patients With von Hippel-Lindau Disease–Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma

In the phase II MK-6482-004 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Eric Jonasch, MD, and colleagues found that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α inhibitor belzutifan produced responses in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease....

Immunotherapy
COVID-19

Response to SARS–CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in Patients With B-Cell Depletion Associated With CAR T-Cell Therapy

In a small single-institution study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Parvathaneni et al found that SARS–CoV-2 mRNA vaccination produced antibody responses in nearly half—and CD4 T-cell responses in more than half—of patients with B-cell depletion due to treatment with...

Lung Cancer

2021 State of Lung Cancer Report Finds Survival Has Increased but Remains Significantly Lower for People of Color

The new 2021 State of Lung Cancer report reveals that the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer increased from 14.5% nationally to 23.7%, yet it remains significantly lower among communities of color. The American Lung Association’s fourth annual report also highlights how the toll of lung cancer...

Lung Cancer

NSCLC in the United States: Update on Incidence, Prevalence, and Survival

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Apar Kishor Ganti, MD, MS, and colleagues found that the incidence of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has decreased in the United States in recent years. They also found that prevalence has increased, likely in association with more effective treatment and...

Lung Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Adjuvant Gefitinib vs Cisplatin/Vinorelbine for Completely Resected EGFR-Mutant Stage II to IIIA NSCLC

In the Japanese phase III IMPACT trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tada et al found that adjuvant gefitinib did not improve disease-free survival vs cisplatin/vinorelbine in patients with completely resected stage II to IIIA EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

In the...

Prostate Cancer

Does Yoga Improve Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer?

A diagnosis of prostate cancer may translate to approximately a 30% increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety, a fourfold higher risk of heart attack, and a twofold higher risk of suicide. A study published by Kaushik et al in Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases aimed to evaluate the...

Breast Cancer

Phase II Breast Cancer Trial: Large Declines in Ki67 Index Seen With Oral Selective Estrogen Receptor Degrader

In the phase II coopERA Breast Cancer trial, which evaluated two endocrine neoadjuvant therapies in estrogen receptor–positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer, the oral selective estrogen receptor degrader giredestrant led to a greater reduction in Ki67 level—a measure of cancer cell...

Issues in Oncology
Cost of Care

Cancer-Related Financial Toxicity: Role of Race

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Panzone et al found that compared to White patients with a history of cancer, Black patients and ‘other race’ patients—but not Hispanic patients—were significantly more likely to have experienced financial toxicity due to cancer.

Study Details

The...

Genomics/Genetics

ALK Inhibition for Pediatric Patients With Advanced ALK-Positive Malignancies

In a phase I dose-escalation and dose-expansion study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Fischer et al found that the ALK inhibitor ceritinib produced durable responses in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory, locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive malignancies.

Study Details

In the...

Leukemia
Immunotherapy

Impact of Prior Blinatumomab Exposure on CD19-Targeted CAR T-Cell Therapy Outcomes in Pediatric Patients With B-Cell ALL

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Myers et al found that lack of response to prior blinatumomab treatment was associated with poorer outcomes with CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy (CD19-CAR) in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory...

Gynecologic Cancers

FDA Approves Pafolacianine to Help Identify Ovarian Cancer Lesions

On November 29, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pafolacianine (Cytalux), a targeted fluorescent imaging agent intended to assist surgeons in identifying ovarian cancer lesions. The drug, which is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer and is administered in the ...

Gastrointestinal Cancer

Overall Survival With Laparoscopic vs Open Distal Gastrectomy for Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer

As reported in JAMA Surgery by Huang et al, the Chinese phase III CLASS-01 trial has shown no difference in 5-year overall survival in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic vs open distal gastrectomy. The previously reported primary analysis of the trial showed no ...

Expert Point of View: Charles L. Shapiro, MD

Charles L. Shapiro, MD, Professor of Medicine, Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, commented on the findings of the coopERA trial for The ASCO Post. He maintained that the oral selective estrogen receptor degraders now in development will be a...

FDA Approves Maribavir for Posttransplant CMV

On November 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the antiviral maribavir (Livtencity) for adult and pediatric patients aged 12 years and older (and weighing at least 35 kg) with posttransplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or disease that is not responsive (with or without...

Prostate Cancer

Study Examines Treatment-Related Regret Among Men With Localized Prostate Cancer

In a prospective cohort study (CEASAR) reported in JAMA Oncology, Wallis et al found that patient expectations of treatment efficacy and adverse effects were associated with treatment-related regret at 5 years after diagnosis in men with localized prostate cancer.

As stated by the investigators,...

Integrative Oncology

Addressing the Global Challenges of Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Nearly 20 million people around the world were diagnosed with cancer in 2020, with 10 million losing their lives to this devastating disease. We highlight here the salient points from our article published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians,1 which describes the major themes and...

Skin Cancer

Research Assesses Molecular Hallmarks of Moles and Melanomas

Moles and melanomas both originate from the same type of cell—melanocytes. A study published by McNeal et al in eLife Magazine aimed to explain how common moles and melanomas form and why moles can subsequently change into melanoma.

Melanocytes are cells that give color to the skin to protect it...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

Impact of Time of Day of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Infusion on Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma

In a single-institution study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Qian et al found that the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors after 4:30 PM was associated with poorer overall survival vs infusion earlier in the day in patients with metastatic melanoma.

As stated by the investigators,...

Issues in Oncology

Research Letter Examines Changes in Cancer Mortality 50 Years After Passage of the National Cancer Act

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Kratzer et al found that mortality from cancer overall has decreased significantly since the passage of the National Cancer Act in 1971, with reductions observed in 12 of the 15 cancer sites associated with the highest mortality rates in...

Solid Tumors

FDA Approves Sirolimus Protein-Bound Particles for Rare Sarcoma

On November 22, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sirolimus protein-bound particles for injectable suspension (albumin-bound; Fyarro) for adult patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). 

AMPECT Trial

...

FDA Pipeline: Reviews and Designations in Hematology

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Priority Review to a gene therapy for patients with β-thalassemia, and Fast Track designation to a SETD2 inhibitor for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Priority Review: Betibeglogene Autotemcel for...

Issues in Oncology

Friends of Cancer Research Releases White Paper on Optimizing Dosing in Oncology Drug Development

During its virtual Annual Meeting 2021 held on November 9 and 10, Friends of Cancer Research (Friends) urged all stakeholders in the cancer community to work together to optimize dosing in oncology drug development to maximize benefit for patients and reduce treatment toxicity, and to abandon the...

Neuroendocrine Tumors

NETTER-1 Trial: Final Overall Survival Analysis of Lu-177 Dotatate Plus Long-Acting Octreotide vs High-Dose Long-Acting Octreotide for Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Jonathan R. Strosberg, MD, and colleagues, the final overall survival analysis of the pivotal phase III NETTER-1 trial has shown an approximate 12-month benefit with the addition of lutetium-177 (Lu-177) dotatate to long-acting octreotide in patients with...

Issues in Oncology

Study Finds Unique Genomic and Molecular Features in Young Adult Patients With Cancer

Young adults diagnosed with cancer may require different treatments than those received by older patients, according to a study that systematically compared the genomes of 14 different types of cancers affecting both younger and older adults. The results, published by Lee et al in Cell Reports,...

Issues in Oncology

Early Study Examines Potential Benefits of a Fasting-Mimicking Diet in Patients With Cancer

A severely calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate, low-protein, 5-day dietary regimen that mimics fasting was shown to be safe and feasible, and it resulted in a decrease of blood glucose and growth factor concentration, a reduction in peripheral blood immunosuppressive cells, and enhanced intratumor ...

Colorectal Cancer

Long-Term Outcomes With Chemoradiotherapy Before vs After Chemotherapy in Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

Long-term results of a German phase II trial (CAO/ARO/AIO-12) reported in JAMA Oncology by Fokas et al showed similar disease outcomes, chronic toxicity, and quality of life with chemoradiotherapy before vs after chemotherapy in the total neoadjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced...

Leukemia

Novel Therapies Under Study in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Newly identified genetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as therapies that can target some of those abnormalities, are now available as the landscape for treatment continues to evolve. During the 2021 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Annual Congress: Hematologic...

Breast Cancer

AI-Based Breast Cancer Risk Model: Multi-institution Validation

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Yala et al found that using the artificial intelligence (AI)-based Mirai model across diverse populations resulted in consistently accurate predictions of breast cancer risk based on screening mammography.

Study Details

In the study, Mirai...

Breast Cancer

Exercise Program May Help to Reduce Upper Limb Disability After Breast Cancer Surgery

Arm and shoulder disability and pain that some women who have had breast cancer surgery experience as a side effect of their procedure may be reduced by following a physiotherapy-led exercise program, according to a new study published by Bruce et al in The BMJ. The report showed an improvement in...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Evorpacept Alone and Combined With Pembrolizumab or Trastuzumab for Advanced Solid Tumors

In the phase I ASPEN-01 study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nehal Lakhani, MD, and colleagues found evidence of activity of the CD47-blocking protein evorpacept in combination with pembrolizumab or trastuzumab for the treatment of advanced solid tumors.

As stated by the investigators, “Both...

Multiple Myeloma

Model May Help Identify Subtypes of Multiple Myeloma

Researchers have developed a new model that uses DNA and RNA sequencing data from hundreds of patients to identify specific genes and genetic alterations responsible for subtypes of multiple myeloma. They also identified potential targeted treatments based on the findings, which were reported by...

Prostate Cancer

Changes in PSA Screening After 2017 USPSTF Guidance Revision

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Michael S. Leapman, MD, and colleagues found that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer has increased since the 2017 publication of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) draft guidance endorsing individual decision-making for...

Palliative Care

Effect of Embedding a Palliative Care Nurse Practitioner in an Oncology Clinic

In a single-center study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, D’Ambruoso et al found that their Integrated Palliative Care and Oncology Program, which included the embedding of a palliative care nurse practitioner (PC-NP) in an oncology clinic, resulted in marked improvements in aspects of palliative ...

COVID-19

FDA Expands Eligibility for COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters

On November 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended the emergency use authorizations (EUA) for both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines authorizing use of a single booster dose for all individuals aged 18 years and older after completion of primary vaccination with any ...

COVID-19
Solid Tumors

Immunogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients Receiving Systemic Therapy for Solid Tumors

In a Dutch study (VOICE) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sjoukje F. Oosting, MD, and colleagues found that the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine produced adequate antibody responses in a majority of patients receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or chemoimmunotherapy for solid tumors, with...

Leukemia

Study Examines Availability of All-Trans Retinoic Acid in U.S. Hospitals

New research published by Geer et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network has found that fewer than one-third of hospitals in the United States had immediate availability of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a crucial blood cancer medication.

ATRA is initiated early in the...

Issues in Oncology
Genomics/Genetics

Development of Phenotypic Spectrum Categorization for Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Kratz et al analyzed data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 Database to define a phenotypic spectrum categorization for Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

As stated by the investigators, “Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a cancer predisposition...

CNS Cancers

Brain Substructure–Informed Radiotherapy Planning May Improve Neurocognitive Outcomes in Pediatric Patients With Medulloblastoma

In an analysis from the single-institution phase III SJMB03 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Acharya et al found that increasing radiation doses to the corpus callosum, frontal white matter, and hippocampus were associated with neurocognitive impairment in pediatric patients...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Adjuvant Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

On November 17, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at intermediate-high or high risk of disease recurrence following nephrectomy or nephrectomy and resection of metastatic lesions. 

...

Prostate Cancer

STAMPEDE Trial: Quality of Life With Abiraterone vs Docetaxel in Advanced Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

In an analysis from the STAMPEDE trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rush et al found that global quality of life was better with abiraterone acetate vs docetaxel, both given with prednisone/prednisolone and standard-of-care androgen-deprivation therapy, in men with locally advanced ...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Association of KRAS Variants With Outcomes After Curative Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a Chinese single-institution cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Zhou et al found that the presence of somatic G12 KRAS variants was associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival in patients who had undergone curative resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Study Details

...

Lung Cancer
COVID-19

French Study Finds COVID-19 Vaccine Effective in Patients With Lung Cancer

In a new study published by Gounant et al in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, researchers from France showed that SARS–CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective in patients with thoracic cancer, most of whom are immunized after two doses. A third shot given to 11% of patients with persistent low...

Immunotherapy

Study Explores Method to Selectively Grow Tumor-Targeting T Cells for Cancer Therapy

A preclinical study published by Arnaud et al in Nature Biotechnology has demonstrated the utility and efficacy of a highly efficient method to generate large numbers of immune cells specifically engineered to recognize neoantigens and destroy the tumors that express them. Developed by a team of

Genomics/Genetics
Issues in Oncology

Study Reveals Genomic Differences Between 14 Tumor Types in Younger vs Older Adults

The results of a study published by Lee et al in Cell Reports suggest that several genetic hallmarks may play key roles in identifying precise treatment options for young adult patients with cancer. The investigators, who systematically compared the genomes of 14 different types of cancers that...

Colorectal Cancer

Treatment Adherence, Toxicity, and Outcomes With Adjuvant Fluoropyrimidine Plus Oxaliplatin in Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

In an analysis of data from the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy (IDEA) database reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fontana et al found a greater risk of relapse and cancer-specific mortality after adjuvant fluoropyrimidine/oxaliplatin chemotherapy in patients...

Pancreatic Cancer

Incidence of Pancreatic Cancer in the United States by Age and Sex, 2000–2018

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA, Gaddam et al found that the incidence of pancreatic cancer has increased in both men and women between 2000 and 2018, with a greater relative increase being observed in younger women.

Pancreatic cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population...

Colorectal Cancer

U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer  Releases Updated Screening Recommendations

The U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer—representing the American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy—has updated its colorectal cancer screening recommendations, which were last published...

Leukemia

Measurable Residual Disease Dynamics and Extended Follow-up in CLL14 Trial of Venetoclax/Obinutuzumab in Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In an analysis of the pivotal CLL14 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Al-Sawaf et al found that venetoclax plus obinutuzumab was associated with higher rates of undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD) and prolonged MRD doubling time vs chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab at 3...

Hematologic Malignancies

FDA Approves Ropeginterferon alfa-2b-njft for Adults With Polycythemia Vera

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ropeginterferon alfa-2b-njft (Besremi) for the treatment of adults with polycythemia vera. The new agent is a monopegylated, long-acting interferon, which exhibits its cellular effects in polycythemia vera in the bone marrow.

Ropeginterferon ...

Leukemia

Novel Drug Combination May Help Children With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Avoid Conventional Chemotherapy

A clinical trial recently published by Kutny et al in JAMA Oncology found that the combination of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide was highly effective in children with standard- and high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Nearly all patients in the trial survived for 2 years...

COVID-19

Immunogenicity of SARS–CoV-2 Vaccines in Patients With Cancer

In a single-institution prospective cohort study (CANVAX Cohort Study) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Naranbhai and colleagues assessed the immunogenicity of SARS–CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer. They found that immunogenicity varied among vaccines and that both antibody...

Skin Cancer

CheckMate 204: Long-Term Outcomes With Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Active Melanoma Brain Metastases

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tawbi et al, final results of the phase II CheckMate 204 trial indicate good long-term outcomes with the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with asymptomatic active melanoma brain metastases, with poorer outcomes observed in those with...

Gynecologic Cancers

Effect of National HPV Vaccination Program on the Incidence of Cervical Cancer and Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Young Women in England

As reported in The Lancet by Falcaro et al, a register-based observational study has shown that the England national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine program, initiated in 2008 using a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix; HPV16/18), has been successful in reducing the rates of cervical cancer and grade 3...

Study Examines Immunotherapy Outcomes in Patients With Solid Tumors Who Are Ineligible for Clinical Trials

Patients with solid tumors who are ineligible for clinical trials receive immune checkpoint inhibitors at greater rates than patients who are eligible, despite no survival benefit, according to a recent study by researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The...

President Biden Nominates Robert M. Califf, MD, MACC, as FDA Commissioner

President Joseph Biden has nominated Robert M. Califf, MD, MACC, for the position of Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dr. Califf is an internationally recognized expert in clinical trial research, health disparities, health-care quality, and cardiovascular medicine....

Lymphoma

Rituximab Maintenance vs Response-Adapted Postinduction Strategy in Advanced Follicular Lymphoma

In an Italian phase III trial (FOLL12) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Luminari et al found that a response-adapted postinduction strategy resulted in poorer progression-free survival vs standard rituximab maintenance in patients with previously untreated advanced follicular lymphoma...

NCI-Designated Cancer Center Compliance With CMS Price Transparency Rules

In a cross-sectional analysis reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Chino et al found that a minority of National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer centers (NCI-CCs) were fully compliant with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) price transparency rules.

Study...

CheckMate 214: Longer Treatment-Free Survival With Immunotherapy vs Targeted Therapy in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line therapy with a checkpoint inhibitor combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab experienced over twice as long treatment-free survival without toxicity compared with patients receiving the targeted therapy sunitinib, according to data...

Researchers Identify Key Link Between Stress and Cancer

Stress can have a significant negative effect on health, but our understanding of how stress impacts the development and progression of cancer is just beginning. A team from Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center has identified an important mechanism by which chronic stress weakens immunity and...

COVID-19

Study Examines COVID-19 Outcomes in Pediatric Patients With Cancer

Most children and adolescents with cancer have mild COVID-19 disease and make a full recovery, a new study by Haeusler et al in the European Journal of Cancer has found. But pediatric patients with cancer and underlying health conditions, severe infections, and low white blood cell counts were...

Outcomes and Toxicity With Single-Agent Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment in Patients With Cancer Aged ≥ 80 Years

In a multicenter international retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Nebhan et al found that single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients with cancer aged ≥ 80 years appeared to be effective and generally well tolerated.

As stated by the investigators, “Geriatric...

International Conference Updates Guidelines for Advanced Breast Cancer

Patients with two out of the three most common types of advanced breast cancer now have an average survival time of at least 5 years, according to a panel of experts at the Advanced Breast Cancer Sixth International Consensus Conference (ABC6), which was held virtually this year.

The Advanced...

Prostate Cancer

Hypofractionated Postoperative Prostate Bed Radiotherapy Does Not Increase Patient-Reported Toxicity for Men With Prostate Cancer

A primary endpoint analysis of the NRG Oncology phase III NRG-GU003 clinical trial, which compared hypofractionated postoperative prostate bed radiotherapy (HYPORT) to conventional postprostatectomy radiotherapy (COPORT) for men with prostate cancer, determined that treatment with HYPORT yielded no ...

Prostate Cancer

22-Gene Classifier Score May Allow for Personalization of Therapy in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

A 22-gene genomic classifier (the Decipher score) may be able to predict the course of disease in men with high-risk prostate cancer, according to a patient-level meta-analysis of three randomized clinical trials presented by Paul L. Nguyen, MD, at the 2021 American Society for Radiation Oncology...

Prostate Cancer

Phase III Trial Evaluates Efficacy of Total Androgen Suppression Plus Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy for Patients With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

Both dose-escalated radiation therapy and short-course androgen-deprivation therapy (SADT) have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Researchers then posed a new question—is giving both modalities upfront to newly diagnosed patients of benefit? Findings ...

Breast Cancer

CDK4/6 Inhibitors Combined With Fulvestrant for Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: FDA Analysis of Overall Survival

In an exploratory U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pooled analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jennifer J. Gao, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment to fulvestrant resulted in a consistent overall survival benefit vs placebo plus fulvestrant in...

Hematologic Malignancies
COVID-19

Study Examines Breakthrough COVID-19 Infection in Vaccinated Patients With Hematologic Cancers

People with blood cancers are at a higher risk than healthy individuals for severe infection with COVID-19; furthermore, research suggests that they do not always achieve optimal protection from vaccination. A new study published by Pagano et al in the journal Blood—the first to report on...

Issues in Oncology

Arginine May Enhance Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

Treatment with arginine, an amino acid, enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in patients with cancer and brain metastases in a proof-of-concept, randomized clinical trial published by Marullo et al in Science Advances.

The recently published paper reported the results of administering...

Thyroid Cancer

International Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Grading System: Detecting Adverse Outcomes

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Xu et al developed a two-tiered international medullary thyroid carcinoma grading system that identifies high-grade disease associated with poorer outcomes.

As stated by the investigators, “Currently, there is no widely accepted...

Gastroesophageal Cancer
Immunotherapy

Health-Related Quality of Life With Pembrolizumab vs Chemotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Adenis et al found that health-related quality of life was maintained with both pembrolizumab and chemotherapy in the pivotal phase III KEYNOTE-181 trial, which included patients with advanced esophageal cancer who had received previous...

Issues in Oncology

Study Finds Lack of Health Insurance May Hinder Recommended Cancer Screening in Unemployed Adults

In a recent study published by Stacey Fedewa, PhD, and colleagues in the journal Cancer, unemployed individuals were less likely to have health insurance and be up to date on getting recommended cancer screening tests. Analyses revealed that their lack of health insurance coverage accounted for...

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