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Thyroid Cancer

Association of Preexisting Thyroid Autoimmunity With Risk of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

In a case-control study among U.S. active-duty personnel reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, McLeod et al found that preexisting thyroid autoimmunity was associated with an increased risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer.  The study included 451 randomly selected personnel serving...

Thyroid Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Expert Point of View: Alexander T. Pearson, MD, PhD

Alexander T. Pearson, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Chicago, commended the artificial intelligence (AI)-augmented, ultrasound-based platform for screening and staging of thyroid cancer.  “In this study, Dr. Chan and colleagues processed high-resolution ultrasound...

Thyroid Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Study Finds AI Ultrasound Platform Can Predict Thyroid Malignancy, Pathologic Stage, and BRAF Mutation Status

An artificial intelligence (AI) ultrasound platform that incorporates multiple methods of machine learning can accurately predict thyroid malignancy as well as pathologic and genomic outcomes, according to data presented at the 2022 Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancers Symposium.1 Findings from...

thyroid cancer

Sue S. Yom, MD, PhD, on Thyroid Cancer: Expert Perspective on the State of the Field

Sue S. Yom, MD, PhD, of the University of California, San Francisco, discusses some of the latest developments in thyroid cancer, including the mutational landscape, therapies for high-risk and anaplastic diseases, and multimodalities for aggressive differentiated thyroid cancers.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroidectomy With or Without Radioiodine for Low-Risk Thyroid Cancer

In the French phase III ESTIMABL2 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Leboulleux et al found that no use of radioiodine was noninferior to radioiodine ablation in the occurrence of functional, structural, or biologic events among patients undergoing thyroidectomy for low-risk...

Thyroid Cancer

Addition of Selumetinib to Adjuvant Radioactive Iodine in High-Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ho et al, the phase III ASTRA trial showed no improvement in complete remission rate with the addition of selumetinib to adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer. As stated by the investigators,...

Thyroid Cancer

AI Model May Aid in Screening, Staging, and Treatment Planning for Thyroid Cancer

A new study has found that an artificial intelligence (AI) model incorporating multiple methods of machine learning accurately detects thyroid cancer and predicts pathological and genomic outcomes through analysis of routine ultrasound images. The AI model could present a low-cost, noninvasive...

Thyroid Cancer
Survivorship

Risk of Second Primary Malignancies After Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pasqual et al found that patients younger than 45 years who received radioactive iodine treatment for nonmetastatic differentiated thyroid cancer had an increased risk for the subsequent development of primary solid tumors. As stated by the...

Thyroid Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Association of Genetic Alterations With Disease Characteristics and Response to Treatment in Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Franco et al found that RET and NTRK fusions were common somatic genetic alterations in pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and were associated with an increased risk of metastasis and poorer treatment outcome. Study ...

Thyroid Cancer

Apatinib for Advanced Radioactive Iodine–Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

In an interim analysis of the Chinese phase III REALITY trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Lin et al found that apatinib, a highly selective VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive...

Thyroid Cancer

International Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Grading System: Detecting Adverse Outcomes

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Xu et al developed a two-tiered international medullary thyroid carcinoma grading system that identifies high-grade disease associated with poorer outcomes. As stated by the investigators, “Currently, there is no widely accepted...

Thyroid Cancer

Cabozantinib for Previously Treated Advanced Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

On September 17, 2021, cabozantinib was approved for adult and pediatric patients aged ≥ 12 years with locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer progressing after ­VEGFR-targeted therapy and who are ineligible or refractory to radioactive iodine.1 Cabozantinib inhibits the...

Thyroid Cancer

Cabozantinib Prolongs Progression-Free Survival in Previously Treated Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Marcia S. Brose, MD, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues, the phase III COSMIC-311 trial has shown that cabozantinib produced a numerically higher objective response rate and significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs...

Thyroid Cancer

FDA Approves Cabozantinib for Patients With Previously Treated Radioactive Iodine–Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

On September 17, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx) for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients aged 12 years and older with locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that has progressed following prior vascular endothelial growth...

Leukemia
Skin Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Kidney Cancer
Lung Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Reviews for Agents in Lung Cancer, Thyroid Cancer, Kidney Cancer, and More

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted applications for agents aiming to treat non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), differentiated thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hypersensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), mucosal melanoma, and endometrial carcinoma....

Thyroid Cancer

Expert Point of View: Nicole Chau, MD

ASCO discussant Nicole Chau, MD, Clinical Associate Professor at the University of British Columbia/BC Cancer in Vancouver, said the COSMIC-311 trial was “noteworthy for meeting its co-primary endpoint of progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 0.22) in this heavily pretreated patient...

Thyroid Cancer

Cabozantinib: Potential New Option for Treatment-Refractory Thyroid Cancer

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib appears to be an effective new option for treatment-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, according to the phase III COSMIC-311 trial, which was stopped early for efficacy.1 COSMIC-311 is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the...

Thyroid Cancer

Cabozantinib in Previously Treated, Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: COSMIC-311

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Marcia S. Brose, MD, and colleagues, the phase III COSMIC-311 trial has shown that cabozantinib produced a numerically higher objective response rate and significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with previously treated,...

Thyroid Cancer

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Lenvatinib for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Lori J. Wirth, MD, and colleagues, a phase II trial of lenvatinib in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer was stopped for futility after an interim analysis. Study Details In the international multicenter trial, 34 patients received lenvatinib...

thyroid cancer

Lori J. Wirth, MD, on Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma: Evolving Systemic Therapy Options

Lori J. Wirth, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, discusses the common molecular alterations across thyroid cancer subtypes; targeted treatments for BRAF V600E–mutant, NTRK–fusion positive, and RET–altered disease; and optimal therapies for patients with multiple types of thyroid cancer.

Gynecologic Cancers
Head and Neck Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Hematologic Malignancies

FDA Pipeline: Designations in Ovarian, Head/Neck, and Thyroid Cancers

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation to a novel immunotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer as well as Breakthrough Therapy designation to treatments for HRAS-mutant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and previously treated thyroid cancer....

Thyroid Cancer

Study Links Exposure to Nighttime Artificial Lights With Possible Elevated Risk of Thyroid Cancer

People living in regions with high levels of outdoor artificial light at night may face a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer, according to a study published by Zhang et al in the journal Cancer. Link Between Nighttime Light and Cancer Risk Over the past century, nightscapes—especially in...

Thyroid Cancer

FDA Approves Pralsetinib for RET-Altered Thyroid Cancers

On December 1, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pralsetinib (Gavreto) for adult and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with advanced or metastatic RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who require systemic therapy, or for patients with RET fusion–positive thyroid cancer...

Thyroid Cancer

Phase II Study Investigates Efficacy of Anlotinib in Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma demonstrated a statistically significant progression-free survival benefit when treated with anlotinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vs placebo, as well as higher response rates, according to...

Thyroid Cancer

Pralsetinib in RET-Mutated Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Pralsetinib (also known as BLU-667) showed activity in patients with advanced RET mutation–positive medullary thyroid cancer, including high rates of durable response, disease control, and 18-month progression-free survival. These findings were presented by Hu et al at the ESMO Virtual Congress...

Lung Cancer
Thyroid Cancer

RET Inhibitor Selpercatinib Achieves Durable Responses in Majority of Patients With RET Gene Fusions

For patients with non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) marked by RET gene fusions, the targeted therapy selpercatinib was well tolerated and achieved durable objective responses in the majority of participants in the phase I/II LIBRETTO-001 trial, according to researchers from The University of...

Thyroid Cancer

Changes in Overall Survival in Patients With Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma From 2000–2019

In a single-institution retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Maniakas et al found that overall survival in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has improved in recent years and identified treatment factors associated with this improvement. As stated by the investigators, “Anaplastic...

Thyroid Cancer

Post Hoc Analysis of Outcomes With Vandetanib for Progressive and Symptomatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kreissl et al, a post hoc analysis of outcomes in the pivotal phase III ZETA trial has shown significantly improved progression-free survival with the multikinase inhibitor vandetanib vs placebo in a subgroup of patients with progressive and...

Thyroid Cancer

Study Finds a High Rate of Intra- and Postoperative Conversions to Total Thyroidectomy

The overall risk of needing a total thyroidectomy was found to be 19.4% for patients undergoing lobectomy for indeterminate and high-risk thyroid nodule, according to a report published by Moore et al in the World Journal of Surgery. The study also found that 21% and 26.5% of patients originally...

Thyroid Cancer
Immunotherapy

Spartalizumab for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jaume Capdevila, MD, and colleagues found that the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor spartalizumab produced responses in a cohort of patients with locally advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, with all...

Lung Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

FDA Approves Selpercatinib for Lung and Thyroid Cancers With RET Mutations or Fusions

On May 8, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to selpercatinib (Retevmo) for the following indications: Adult patients with metastatic RET fusion–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Adult and pediatric patients ≥ 12 years of age with advanced or...

Lung Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Myelodysplastic Syndromes

FDA Pipeline: Priority Review Granted for Treatment in Lung and Thyroid Cancers

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Priority Review to a treatment for lung and thyroid cancers with a RET fusion or mutation; gave Breakthrough Therapy designation to a doublet therapy for TP53-mutated myelodysplastic syndromes; and issued an update to their...

Issues in Oncology
Prostate Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Leukemia

Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Responders to the September 11 Attacks

A study published by Shapiro et al in JNCI Cancer Spectrum showed that responders to the World Trade Center site after the attacks on September 11, 2001, have statistically significant elevations in cancer incidence for all cancer sites combined, and for prostate and thyroid cancer and leukemia....

Thyroid Cancer

DUOX2 Mutation in Familial Thyroid Cancers

Researchers have identified a new genetic mutation that may cause a type of familial thyroid cancer. According to the researchers, DUOX2 is the first and only mutation associated with familial thyroid cancer to be identified in a gene that is primarily expressed in the thyroid gland. These findings ...

Prostate Cancer
Breast Cancer
Bladder Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Kidney Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

ESMO Congress 2019: Quick Takes From Key Clinical Trials

The ESMO Congress continues to grow as a pivotal platform for research in clinical oncology. At the ESMO Congress 2019, important findings were showcased in more than 2,200 studies, including 93 late-breaking abstracts. The ASCO Post summarized much of that news in separate articles over several...

Thyroid Cancer

2019 Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association Briefs

The American Thyroid Association held its 2019 Annual Meeting from October 30 to November 3 in Chicago. Below are brief summaries of important oral presentations on thyroid cancer from the meeting. Incidence and Incidence-Based Mortality in a State Results of a retrospective analysis of thyroid...

Thyroid Cancer

ESMO 2019: LIBRETTO-001 Trial of Selpercatinib in RET Fusion–Positive Thyroid Cancer

Patients with advanced RET fusion–positive thyroid cancer and RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer had high rates of response following treatment with selpercatinib, according to findings from the phase I/II LIBRETTO-001 trial presented by Wirth et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology...

Thyroid Cancer

For Maria Papaleontiou, MD, Research Holds the Key to Improving Care of Patients With Thyroid Cancer

Maria Papaleontiou, MD, whose research interests focus on the complex issues surrounding the management of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease in general, was born on Cyprus, a small island nestled in the azure waters of the Mediterranean Sea. She recently spoke with The ASCO Post about her life and ...

thyroid cancer

Lauren P. Wallner, PhD, MPH, on Thyroid Cancer: Reducing Overtreatment With Radioactive Iodine

Lauren P. Wallner, PhD, MPH, of the University of Michigan, discusses her findings from a population-based study, which showed that many patients believe they had no choice about whether or not to receive radioactive iodine, even though it often does not improve survival. There is a need, she says, for better shared decision-making (Abstract 159).

Thyroid Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Lung Cancer
Survivorship
Palliative Care

News From JCO and JOP

STAYING UP-TO-DATE in the fast-paced world of oncology literature is a daunting task at best. To assist with that task, The ASCO Post has assembled an assortment of studies recently published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) and the Journal of Oncology Practice (JOP). Future installments...

Thyroid Cancer

The Rising Incidence of Thyroid Cancer Reconsidered

Despite a significant rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), a panel of independent experts in primary care and screening, has given thyroid cancer screening a D recommendation, which is a recommendation against screening. To shed light on this...

Thyroid Cancer
Survivorship

Bridging the Survivorship Care Gap for Young Adult Survivors of Thyroid Cancer

Although thyroid cancer is among the five most common carcinomas diagnosed in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) between the ages of 15 and 39—thyroid cancer is more common in young women than young men and is the most common cancer diagnosed in females between the ages of 15 and 29 and the second ...

Thyroid Cancer

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommends Against Screening for Thyroid Cancer in Asymptomatic Individuals

AS REPORTED in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against thyroid cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals.1 The current USPSTF statement is an update of a 1996 USPSTF recommendation statement. The recommendation was based on Task Force review of evidence on ...

Thyroid Cancer

Are Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Truly Increasing in the United States?

THYROID CANCER diagnoses are increasing at a rate faster than any other malignancy in the United States. In 2017, there will be 56,870 new cases, accounting for 3.4% of all cancers, and 2,010 people will die of thyroid cancer.1 This represents a more than 200% increase in incidence since the...

Thyroid Cancer

Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States

THE REPORTED INCIDENCE of thyroid cancer has markedly increased in the United States in recent decades, largely reflecting an increase in reported rates of papillary thyroid cancer. It has been unclear whether the increase in incidence is reflected in mortality rates over time. In a study of...

thyroid cancer
survivorship

Dong Wook Shin, MD, DrPH, MBA, on Thyroid Cancer: Risk of Side Effects

Dong Wook Shin, MD, DrPH, MBA, of Seoul National University Cancer Hospital, discusses the risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in patients with thyroid cancer taking levothyroxine (Abstract 105).

Lymphoma
Thyroid Cancer

I’ve Survived Two Cancers

In 2012, my husband, Robert, and I were looking forward to starting the next phase of our lives and were feeling excited about the future. Although only in our 50s, we had decided to retire early from our full-time careers, move to our cabin in Hayward, Wisconsin, and find less stressful part-time ...

Thyroid Cancer

FDA Grants Selumetinib Orphan Drug Designation for Adjuvant Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Earlier this month, AstraZeneca announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug designation for the investigational MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib for adjuvant treatment of patients with stage III or IV differentiated thyroid cancer. Selumetinib inhibits the MEK...

Thyroid Cancer

Raising Awareness of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

I’m used to having bumps and cysts pop up on my body, so when I felt a lump on the front of my throat, just below my Adam’s apple, I brushed it off. But when it was still there 6 months later, I became concerned and decided to see an ear, nose, and throat specialist. He performed a fine-needle...

Survivorship
Thyroid Cancer

Detection of Thyroid Cancer Most Cost-Effective With Physical Examination, Not Ultrasound Screening

A study evaluating annual physical examination as a screening method to detect thyroid cancer in cancer survivors exposed to neck radiation has shown a substantial cost reduction compared with ultrasound screening, with no thyroid cancer–related mortality.1 According to the analysis, this method...

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