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genomics/genetics
cns cancers

Researchers Identify Specific Mutations in the BRAF Gene That May Affect Response to Treatment and Survival in Adult Brain Cancers

Researchers have identified a range of genetic mutations in gliomas that may help them understand how different mutations in the BRAF gene interact with other gene mutations—and which ones are more susceptible to targeted treatments in adults—according to a new study published by Schreck et al in...

Recent Trial Findings in Genitourinary Oncology

On this episode, we’re hearing from authors of recent impactful research in the field of genitourinary oncology.

skin cancer

KEYNOTE-716: Distant Metastasis–Free Survival With Adjuvant Pembrolizumab in Resected Stage IIB or IIC Melanoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Georgina V. Long, MBBS, PhD, and colleagues, an analysis from the phase III KEYNOTE-716 trial has shown significant improvement in the secondary endpoint of distant metastasis–free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab vs placebo in resected stage IIB or IIC...

lung cancer

Telisotuzumab Vedotin Plus Erlotinib in c-Met Protein–Expressing NSCLC

In a phase Ib trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, D. Ross Camidge, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that the combination of telisotuzumab vedotin and erlotinib showed activity in c-Met protein–expressing advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including those with an EGFR mutation ...

prostate cancer

Biomarker Assessment for Benefit of LuPSMA vs Cabazitaxel in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a prespecified analysis from the Australian phase II TheraP trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Buteau et al found that higher gallium-68–labeled PSMA-11 positron-emission tomography (PSMA-PET) mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) were associated with a greater likelihood of...

Expert Point of View: Glenn J. Hanna, MD and Sherene Loi, MD, PhD

The ASCO Post asked for comment from Glenn J. Hanna, MD, Director of the Center for Salivary and Rare Head and Neck Cancers, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Hanna said it is important to put the findings of KEYNOTE-4121 into context...

head and neck cancer

Pembrolizumab Plus Chemoradiation Therapy Falls Short in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

Pembrolizumab plus chemoradiation therapy failed to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in event-free survival vs chemoradiation therapy alone in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, but favorable numerical trends were demonstrated, according to...

Expert Point of View: Jean-Yves Blay, MD, PhD

The invited discussant of the DeFi trial was Jean-Yves Blay, MD, PhD, General Director of the Center Bérard, Lyon, France, and President of Unicancer, the French Federation of Cancer Centers. He called the DeFi study a “rigorous trial” in a “representative population” that “introduces a new class...

solid tumors

DeFi Trial: Novel Gamma Secretase Inhibitor Halts Progression of Desmoid Tumors

Patients with rare desmoid tumors may finally have an effective treatment. A first-in-class gamma secretase inhibitor, nirogacestat, led to an improvement in progression-free survival in the phase III DeFi trial. The results were presented during the Presidential Symposium at the European Society...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Expert Point of View: Alexander M.M. Eggermont, MD; Omid Hamid, MD; and James Larkin, PhD

The results of SWOG S18011 were met with enthusiasm by attendees at the Presidential Symposium of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2022. The ASCO Post captured the thoughts of several melanoma experts, who had somewhat different ideas about the immediate clinical...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

SWOG S1801: Addition of Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab to Adjuvant Pembrolizumab Yields Benefits in High-Risk Resectable Melanoma

In resectable stage III to IV melanoma, three cycles of neoadjuvant pembrolizumab followed by adjuvant pembrolizumab was significantly more beneficial than adjuvant pembrolizumab alone, based on the results of the phase II SWOG S1801 trial presented in a Presidential Symposium at the European...

Expert Point of View: Robin Kate Kelley, MD

Robin Kate Kelley, MD, Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, was invited to discuss the results of LEAP-002.1 She said the main take-away is that lenvatinib monotherapy is active as a preferred first-line agent for fit patients who have contraindications to ...

hepatobiliary cancer

Lenvatinib Plus Pembrolizumab in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: LEAP-002 Fails to Meet Co-primary Endpoints

The highly anticipated final analysis of the phase III LEAP-002 trial failed to meet expectations, as first-line treatment with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab did not significantly improve outcomes in unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Both progression-free survival and overall survival ...

hematologic malignancies

FDA Approves Oral MEK Inhibitor Cobimetinib for Histiocytic Neoplasms

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved cobimetinib (Cotellic), an oral inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, for the treatment of adult patients with the family of blood diseases known as histiocytic neoplasms. These diseases include Erdheim-Chester disease, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and...

colorectal cancer

Effect of Invitation to Colonoscopy Screening on Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Risk of Mortality: The NordICC Trial

In a pragmatic trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Bretthauer et al, on behalf of the Nordic-European Initiative on Colorectal Cancer (NordICC) Study Group, found a reduced risk of colorectal cancer diagnosis but no significant reduction in disease-specific mortality among...

Expert Point of View: James Larkin, PhD and Andrea Cercek, MD

Invited discussant James Larkin, PhD, a clinical researcher at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, commented on the findings from NICHE-2.1 “These striking data are consistent with the recent report in locally advanced mismatch repair–deficient [dMMR] rectal cancer from Memorial Sloan Kettering.2...

colorectal cancer

NICHE-2: ‘Unprecedented’ Waterfall Plot Achieved With Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy in dMMR Colon Cancer

Treatment with neoadjuvant immunotherapy in colon cancer resulted in major pathologic responses in 95% of patients, NICHE-2 investigators reported at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2022.1 Additionally, after 4 weeks of nivolumab plus ipilimumab, 67% of patients with...

Expert Point of View: Bernard Escudier, MD and Brian I. Rini, MD

To put the CheckMate 914, IMmotion010, and PROSPER trials into context, The ASCO Post spoke with Bernard Escudier, MD, former Chair of the Genitourinary Group of the Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. In general, Dr. Escudier believes that studies to date are not robust enough to justify...

kidney cancer

Negative Phase III Trials May Dampen Enthusiasm for Immunotherapy in the Adjuvant Setting in Kidney Cancer

Three negative phase III trials presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2022 may dampen enthusiasm for immunotherapy as adjuvant therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). None of the three trials—CheckMate 914, IMmotion010, and PROSPER—met its primary endpoint.1-3 The...

prostate cancer

RADICALS-HD Trial: Duration of Androgen-Deprivation Therapy With Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy

The addition of 24 months of androgen-deprivation therapy to postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy provided a metastasis-free survival benefit and improved the time to salvage therapy in patients with prostate cancer, according to the preliminary results from the RADICALS-HD trial...

supportive care
symptom management

Managing Primary Prophylactic Colony-Stimulating Factor Use in Patients Receiving Regimens Associated With Intermediate Risk for Febrile Neutropenia

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dawn L. Hershman, MD, MS, FASCO, and colleagues found that a standing order entry (SOE) for vs an alert against use of primary prophylactic colony-stimulating factor (PP-CSF) for patients receiving first-line regimens for cancer associated...

Expert Point of View: Sumanta K. Pal, MD, FASCO

“Hats off to the investigators for the first comparison of triplet to doublet in advanced renal cell carcinoma. This is also the first results using a contemporary control group. The study met its primary endpoint,” said Sumanta K. Pal, MD, FASCO, Co-Director of the Kidney Cancer Program, City of...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

COSMIC-313: Triplet Therapy Is Active in Renal Cell Carcinoma, but Toxicities Pose a Challenge

The addition of cabozantinib to nivolumab plus ipilimumab prolonged progression-free survival in untreated intermediate-risk patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), according to the first results of the phase III COSMIC-313 trial. These findings were presented as a Presidential Symposium ...

Expert Point of View: Mary O’Brien, MD

Formal discussant Mary O’Brien, MD, Head of the Lung Unit, the Royal Marsden Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London, commented on the POSEIDON trial. “The POSEIDON trial is the largest data set we have on KRAS-mutated [non–small cell lung cancer], with a positive signal in picking up some patients...

cns cancers
genomics/genetics

Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitor in Patients With Meningioma and Somatic NF2 Mutations

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Priscilla K. Brastianos, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the phase II Alliance A071401 trial showed activity of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor GSK2256098 in patients with recurrent or progressive grade 1 to 3 meningioma and somatic NF2...

lung cancer

POSEIDON Follow-up Suggests Chemoimmunotherapy Triplet Extends Survival in Difficult-to-Treat NSCLC Mutational Subtypes

After 4 years, a limited course of five cycles of tremelimumab added to durvalumab plus chemotherapy extended overall survival in patients with metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with chemotherapy alone, according to an updated exploratory analysis of the phase III POSEIDON...

Expert Point of View: Natasha Leighl, MD

“Platinum-ineligible patients are typically excluded from clinical trials, yet they represent the majority of patients that we diagnose and treat—patients with poor performance status and comorbidities,” said invited discussant Natasha Leighl, MD, of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto....

lung cancer

IPSOS Trial: Platinum-Ineligible Patients With NSCLC May Gain Survival Benefit From Atezolizumab Therapy

In platinum-ineligible patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line treatment with the PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab improved overall survival by an absolute value of about 1 month but almost doubled the rate of 2-year overall survival compared with chemotherapy...

Expert Point of View: Natasha Leighl, MD

“CodeBreaK 200 clearly establishes sotorasib as the new standard of care, replacing docetaxel as second- or third-line therapy for advanced KRAS G12C–mutated lung cancer,” stated invited discussant Natasha Leighl, MD, of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto. “Sotorasib improved...

lung cancer

Sotorasib: A New Standard of Care for Second- or Third-Line Treatment of KRAS G12C–Mutated NSCLC?

The KRAS G12C inhibitor sotorasib doubled the rate of progression-free survival at 12 months and reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 34% compared with standard second-line docetaxel for patients with previously treated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and KRAS G12C mutations....

colorectal cancer

The NordICC Trial: The Devil Is in the Details

Colorectal cancer ranks third among cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, with an estimated 106,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths anticipated in 2022.1 Colorectal cancer rates have declined by approximately 2% per year from 2014 to 2018 in people over the age of 50 years, which is ...

Expert Point of View: Sanjay Popat, FRCP, PhD

“Adjuvant osimertinib has been adopted widespread as a standard of care as a result of the primary results of ADAURA,” said formal discussant Sanjay Popat, FRCP, PhD, medical oncologist and lung specialist at the Royal Marsden Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London. “We have more granularity about ...

lung cancer

Longer-Term Follow-up From ADAURA Supports Adjuvant Osimertinib as Standard of Care for EGFR-Mutated Stage IB to IIIA NSCLC

With longer-term follow-up, adjuvant treatment with osimertinib led to a 77% reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or death following complete resection vs placebo-treated patients with EGFR-mutated, stage II to IIIA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Disease-free survival was improved...

lung cancer

Andrea McKee, MD, and Brady McKee, MD, Honored With the James L. Mulshine, MD, National Leadership Award for Ensuring Equitable Access to High-Quality Lung Cancer Screenings

Andrea McKee, MD, and the late Brady McKee, MD, will be honored with the James L. Mulshine, MD, National Leadership Award on Thursday, November 3, at the Prevent Cancer Foundation’s 19th annual Quantitative Imaging Workshop. The annual Mulshine Award is given to an individual or individuals who has ...

solid tumors

Highlights From the ESMO Congress 2022

At this year’s European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress, we experienced an eagerly awaited return to normality (or almost), and the quality of the science on display was anything but disappointing: from molecular medicine to treatment de-escalation, from early cancer detection and...

gynecologic cancers
immunotherapy

Researchers Discover Differences in Response to Pembrolizumab Among Patients With Endometrial Cancer

Researchers discovered a differential clinical response to pembrolizumab in patients with Lynch-like (mutated) vs methylated microsatellite instability–high endometrial cancer, outlining characteristics of patients who may derive benefit from immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, according to new...

prostate cancer

PSA Screening Rates and Incidence of Metastatic Prostate Cancer at VHA Facilities

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Bryant et al found that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening rates at Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities declined between 2005 and 2019—and that diagnoses of metastatic prostate cancer increased over the same time period....

neuroendocrine tumors

Addition of Capecitabine to Temozolomide in Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Pamela L. Kunz, MD, and colleagues, the phase II ECOG-ACRIN E2211 trial has shown significantly prolonged progression-free survival with the addition of capecitabine to temozolomide in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Study ...

genomics/genetics

Genomic Microsatellite Signature Assay to Identify Germline MMRD in Patients With CMMRD

In an analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chung et al described the performance of a newly developed assay using genomic microsatellite signatures (LOGIC; low-pass genomic instability characterization) in detecting germline mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) in patients with the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Increased Mortality From Comorbid Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Associated With Increased Social Vulnerability

In a U.S.-based cross-sectional study reported in JACC: CardioOncology, Sarju Ganatra, MD, of Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, and colleagues found that mortality from comorbid cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was significantly higher in counties with higher...

leukemia
genomics/genetics

Chemotherapy Outcomes in Noninfant Childhood ALL With 11q23/KMT2A Rearrangements

In a retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Attarbaschi et al described outcomes in patients with noninfant childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 11q23/KMT2A rearrangements treated with chemotherapy regimens between 1995 and 2010. Study Details The study...

hepatobiliary cancer

Treatment of AJCC Stage IV Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

This is Part 4 of Updates in Hepatobiliary Cancer, a four-part video roundtable series. Scroll down to watch the other videos from this Roundtable.   In this video, Drs. Ghassan Abou-Alfa, Dr. Richard Finn, and Dr. Rachna Shroff discuss the treatment of AJCC stage IV intrahepatic...

hepatobiliary cancer

Adjuvant Therapy in Biliary Tract Cancer

This is Part 3 of Updates in Hepatobiliary Cancer, a four-part video roundtable series. Scroll down to watch the other videos from this Roundtable.   In this video, Drs. Ghassan Abou-Alfa, Dr. Richard Finn, and Dr. Rachna Shroff discuss the role of adjuvant therapy in biliary tract cancer. The...

hepatobiliary cancer

Second-Line Therapy and Beyond in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

This is Part 2 of Updates in Hepatobiliary Cancer, a four-part video roundtable series. Scroll down to watch the other videos from this Roundtable.   In this video, Drs. Ghassan Abou-Alfa, Dr. Richard Finn, and Dr. Rachna Shroff discuss second-line therapy and beyond in hepatocellular carcinoma....

hepatobiliary cancer

Front-Line Therapy in Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma

This is Part 1 of Updates in Hepatobiliary Cancer, a four-part video roundtable series. Scroll down to watch the other videos from this Roundtable.   In this video, Drs. Ghassan Abou-Alfa, Dr. Richard Finn, and Dr. Rachna Shroff discuss front-line therapy in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The ...

issues in oncology
integrative oncology

Legal and Ethical Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions in Oncology

In addition to, or instead of, receiving therapies that are the standard of care, patients with cancer sometimes request to receive complementary (therapies used in conjunction with standard cancer treatment) and alternative (nonstandard treatments used in place of standard cancer treatment)...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy With Relatlimab and Nivolumab in Stage III Melanoma

The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors relatlimab and nivolumab for patients with stage III melanoma given before surgery was safe and completely cleared all viable tumor in 57% of patients in a phase II study, according to findings published by Amaria et al in Nature. In addition to...

gynecologic cancers
immunotherapy

Identifying Patients With Ovarian Cancer With Greatest Potential Benefit From First-Line Bevacizumab

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Benoit You, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that an unfavorable CA-125 elimination rate constant K (KELIM) score, indicating poorer tumor chemosensitivity, was associated with derived benefit from first-line bevacizumab when given with...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of Bemarituzumab to mFOLFOX in FGFR2b-Selected Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

In the phase II FIGHT trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Zev A. Wainberg, MD, and colleagues found numerically better progression-free survival with the addition of the anti-FGFR2b antibody bemarituzumab to mFOLFOX (modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) in patients with...

bladder cancer

Rogaratinib vs Chemotherapy in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma and FGFR1/3 mRNA Overexpression

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Cora N. Sternberg, MD, and colleagues, interim analysis of the phase II portion of the phase II/III FORT-1 trial has shown similar objective response rates with the oral FGFR1–4 inhibitor rogaratinib vs chemotherapy in previously treated patients...

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