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breast cancer

First-Line Ribociclib Plus Endocrine Therapy May Be More Effective Than Combination Chemotherapy in Patients With Aggressive Breast Cancer

In patients with hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer—including patients with visceral crises—those treated with ribociclib plus endocrine therapy had fewer adverse events and significantly longer progression-free survival compared to those treated with combination...

breast cancer
lymphoma

Breast Implants After Mastectomy Associated With Very Low Risk of ALCL

The incidence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has surged in recent years—possibly because of the growing use of textured breast implants. Considering this trend, some patients with breast cancer who undergo mastectomy may wonder if the benefits of getting reconstructive implants are worth...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Machine Learning–Based Scoring of TILs and Outcomes With Immunotherapy in Patients With NSCLC

In a retrospective study reported in JAMA Oncology, Rakaee et al found that tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels ascertained via machine learning–based scoring on standard histologic images were associated with response in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for non–small...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

Sumanta Pal, MD, on Renal Cell Carcinoma: CRISPR-Engineered CAR T Cells in Advanced Disease

Sumanta Pal, MD, of the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses phase I results from the COBALT-RCC study, a first-in-human clinical trial exploring CD70 CAR T-cell therapy in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The agent appeared to show an excellent safety profile with no...

breast cancer

Study Finds Racial Disparity in Prometastatic Tumor Microenvironment Among Patients With Residual Breast Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

Residual tumors from Black patients with estrogen receptor–positive/HER2-negative primary breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a higher risk score associated with a biomarker of distant metastatic recurrence compared with tumors from White patients, according to new findings...

breast cancer

Genomic Assay May Predict Long-Term Prognosis in Premenopausal Patients With Hormone Receptor–Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

Among premenopausal patients with hormone receptor–positive, early-stage breast cancer enrolled in the SOFT trial, those with a high score on the Breast Cancer Index genomic assay had an increased risk of distant recurrence—and those with a low score on the Breast Cancer Index may have benefited...

breast cancer

Black Patients With Breast Cancer May Have Worse Outcomes Than Other Patients Despite Similar Genetic Recurrence Scores

Non-Hispanic Black patients with lymph node–positive, hormone receptor (HR)–positive/HER2-negative breast cancer experienced worse outcomes compared with the outcomes of non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic patients—despite similar 21-gene recurrence scores—according to new findings presented by ...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Adjuvant Pembrolizumab May Improve Quality of Life in Patients With High-Risk Resected Melanoma

Taken together with the primary clinical results, a secondary analysis of the phase III SWOG S1404 randomized clinical trial demonstrated that pembrolizumab provides superior clinical and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes compared to standard of care with adjuvant ipilimumab or high-dose...

prostate cancer

Lu-177 Vipivotide Tetraxetan Shows Benefit in Patients With PSMA-Positive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

On December 5, Novartis announced the pivotal phase III PSMAfore study of lutetium (Lu-177) vipivotide tetraxetan, a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy, met its primary endpoint. The therapy demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Avelumab Plus Talazoparib in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

In the phase Ib/II JAVELIN PARP Medley trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, and colleagues found that the combination of the anti–PD-L1 agent avelumab and the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor talazoparib produced objective response rates in patient subgroups with ...

bladder cancer

DNA Repair Protein MRE11 Expression and Disease-Specific Mortality Among Patients With Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Receiving Trimodality Therapy

In a retrospective analysis reported in JAMA Network Open, Magliocco et al found that among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer receiving bladder-preserving trimodality therapy, those with a lower expression of the DNA repair protein MRE11 had significantly poorer disease-specific...

leukemia
immunotherapy

ELIANA Trial 3-Year Update: Tisagenlecleucel in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell ALL

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Laetsch et al, the 3-year update of the phase II ELIANA trial showed durable responses and a manageable safety profile with tisagenlecleucel for the treatment of pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute...

breast cancer
survivorship

Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality Among Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

In a cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Chen et al found that postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with exercise patterns categorized as active or moderately active had significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality compared to those with patterns categorized as insufficiently...

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

Roger Li, MD, on Bladder Cancer: Boosting Immune Checkpoint Blockade With an Oncolytic Adenovirus

Roger Li, MD, of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, discusses results from a phase II single-arm study of CG0070, a cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus that creates mechanistic synergy with immune checkpoint blockade. In this trial, the virus was combined with pembrolizumab in patients with...

FDA Approvals: November 2022

On this episode, we’re reviewing U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals in oncology and hematology that occurred during the month of November.

issues in oncology

Residential Racial and Economic Segregation and Cancer Mortality in the United States

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Zhang et al found that U.S. counties with greater deprivation as measured by residential racial and economic segregation using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) had higher cancer mortality rates vs less deprived counties. Study Details The study...

thyroid cancer

Epigenetic Imprinted Biomarker Test to Identify Malignant Thyroid Nodules

In a Chinese study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Xu et al found that a test for epigenetic imprinted biomarkers was highly accurate in distinguishing malignant vs benign thyroid nodules. Study Details The multicenter study involved 550 consecutively enrolled patients with nodules...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancers
colorectal cancer
covid-19

Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates Before vs After the COVID-19 Pandemic

In a U.S. cross-sectional study reported in JAMA Oncology, Oakes et al found that as of December 2021, breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates remained below pre–COVID-19 pandemic levels, despite initial rebounds in some rates. Reduced screening rates were accompanied by reduced...

leukemia
genomics/genetics

FDA Approves Olutasidenib for Relapsed or Refractory AML With a Susceptible IDH1 Mutation

On December 1, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved olutasidenib (Rezlidhia) capsules for adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a susceptible IDH1 mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test. The FDA also approved the Abbott RealTime IDH1...

issues in oncology

Risk of Cancer May Double for Patients With ‘Skewed’ Blood Cells

New research has shed light on how skewed X chromosome inactivation may be linked to the development of cancer and cardiovascular disease, according to a novel study published by Roberts et al in eLife. Background Because the X chromosome has so many more genes than the Y chromosome, in every cell...

gynecologic cancers

Are Patients Older Than 65 Years Being Overscreened for Cervical Cancer?

Patients older than 65 years may be undergoing unnecessary cervical cancer screenings, and more public health data may be needed on the utilization of cervical cancer screening–associated services among older patients to prevent potential harm and unnecessary costs, according to a new study...

breast cancer
cost of care

High Deductibles May Discourage Patients From Receiving Additional Testing After an Abnormal Mammogram

Twenty percent of patients are likely to forgo additional testing after an abnormal finding on a screening mammogram if there is a deductible, according to new findings presented at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 2022 Annual Meeting. Background As health-care costs and insurance...

lung cancer

Lung Cancer Screening May Increase Long-Term Survival Rate

Diagnosing early-stage lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) screenings may improve patients’ long-term survival rate, according to long-term findings from the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program presented at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 2022 Annual...

issues in oncology

Study Finds Americans Have a Low Awareness of the Link Between Alcohol Use and Increased Cancer Risk

Research shows that all beverage types containing ethanol, including wine, beer, and hard liquor, increase cancer risk, and that the risk increases with higher alcohol consumption. Even light drinking—no more than one drink per day—increases the risk for some cancers, including esophageal and...

supportive care
symptom management
palliative care

Does CBD Oil Improve Symptom Distress in Patients With Advanced Cancer Receiving Palliative Care?

In an Australian phase IIb trial (MedCan1-CBD) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hardy et al found that use of cannabidiol (CBD) oil did not improve symptom distress vs placebo in adult patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care. Study Details The double-blind multicenter...

cns cancers

Autologous Tumor Lysate–Loaded Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Glioblastoma

In an externally controlled phase III trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Liau et al found that the addition of an autologous tumor lysate–loaded dendritic cell vaccine (DCVax-L) to standard of care improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and recurrent glioblastoma compared...

gynecologic cancers

Incidence of Cervical Cancer in Women in the United States: 2001 to 2019

In a study reported as a research letter in JAMA, Shahmoradi et al found that the incidence of cervical cancer decreased or remained stable in U.S. women between 2001 and 2019, except for an increase in the 30- to 34-year-old age group in more recent years. As stated by the investigators, “A recent ...

hepatobiliary cancer

Novel DELFI AI Blood Test May Aid in Detecting Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A novel artificial intelligence (AI) blood testing technology—known as DELFI (DNA evaluation of fragments for early interception)—may successfully detect more than 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas, according to a new study published by Foda et al in Cancer Discovery. The findings were also...

lymphoma

Novel Research Suggests New Way to Target Mantle Cell Lymphoma Using FOXO1 Inhibitors

Preclinical research has shown that mantle cell lymphoma is so critically dependent on the FOXO1 protein that by blocking its activity with an experimental drug, the cancer’s growth may be slowed, according to a new study published by Jang et al in the Journal of Clinical Investigation....

prostate cancer
genomics/genetics

Ethnic Diversity and Disparities in Access to Genetic Testing May Impact Prostate Cancer Development and Treatment, Research Shows

More than 1.4 million patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2020 globally, but the molecular characteristics of the disease remain unexplored for the majority of patients around the world. In the final days of the Movember campaign, which every year in November aims to raise awareness of...

issues in oncology
cost of care

Medicare Advantage vs Traditional Medicare for Elective Inpatient Cancer Surgery: Access, Postoperative Outcomes, and Estimated Cost

In a retrospective cohort study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Mustafa Raoof, MD, MS, and colleagues found that California Medicare Advantage beneficiaries undergoing elective inpatient cancer surgery were less likely than traditional Medicare beneficiaries to have surgery at...

solid tumors

Novel Bispecific Antibody Zanidatamab in Advanced HER2-Expressing or HER2-Amplified Cancers

In a phase I dose-escalation and expansion study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Funda Meric-Bernstam, MD, and colleagues found that zanidatamab, a novel bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against two nonoverlapping domains of HER2, showed activity in locally advanced or metastatic...

colorectal cancer
symptom management

Potential Factors in Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer

In an analysis from the phase III CALGB (Alliance)/SWOG 80702 trial of adjuvant FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) for patients with stage III colon cancer reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lee et al found that longer duration of oxaliplatin treatment was associated with ...

immunotherapy

Michael B. Atkins, MD, on Reconciling Differences in Phase II and III Immuno-oncology Trial Data

Michael B. Atkins, MD, of Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, explores recent clinical trials in immuno-oncology in which the phase III trial produced markedly different results from the phase II trial. To help understand the potential value to patients of late-stage trials of...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Kishu Ranjan, PhD, on Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: New Findings on a Biomarker and Immunotherapy Resistance

Kishu Ranjan, PhD, of Yale University School of Medicine, discusses his study findings, which identified a deficiency in the biomarker TAP2 as a prominent immune evasion mechanism in patients whose non–small cell lung cancer has resisted immunotherapy (Abstract 148).

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

T-DXd in Pretreated Patients With HER2-Low Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Yamaguchi et al, an exploratory cohort analysis in a Japanese/South Korean phase II trial (DESTINY-Gastric01) indicated that fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki (TDX-d) showed activity in previously treated—but anti-HER2 treatment–naive—patients with...

genomics/genetics
solid tumors

Avelumab Plus Talazoparib in Patients With BRCA1/2- or ATM-Altered Advanced Solid Tumors

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Schram et al, the phase IIb tumor-agnostic JAVELIN BRCA/ATM trial has shown that the combination of avelumab and talazoparib did not meet the prespecified objective response rate goal among patients with advanced BRCA1/2-altered or ATM-altered solid tumors. The...

leukemia

Zanubrutinib vs Ibrutinib in Relapsed or Refractory CLL

In an interim analysis of the phase III ALPINE trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Peter Hillmen, MBChB, PhD, and colleagues found that zanubrutinib produced a significantly higher objective response rate vs ibrutinib in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic...

supportive care
hematologic malignancies

Study Examines Coping Strategies Used by Caregivers of Patients Undergoing Stem Cell Transplants

November is Caregiver Awareness Month, and timely findings from a study published by Amonoo et al in the journal Blood Advances suggested that, among caregivers of patients undergoing a stem cell transplant, how someone approaches coping can influence the levels of anxiety, depression, and poor...

survivorship

High Sugar Consumption May Be Linked to Increased Risk of Premature Aging in Pediatric Cancer Survivors

Survivors of pediatric cancer who consumed more total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages had more aging-related health conditions than survivors who consumed less sugar, according to a new study presented by Lan et al at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Special...

issues in oncology

Patients Who Are HIV-Positive and Have Cancer May Have Accelerated Epigenetic Aging

Patients with cancer who are living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had an increased epigenetic age compared with patients with cancer living without the HIV infection, according to a new study presented by Coghill et al at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)...

breast cancer

Presence of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Following Neoadjuvant Treatment May Contribute to Worse Survival in Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer may be less likely to survive if their initial treatment fails to eradicate the tumor completely and they have high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in their residual tumors, according to a new study published by Miglietta et al in the European...

breast cancer

Intraoperative Ultrasound vs Wire Localization in Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

Using intraoperative ultrasound to guide surgery for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ may yield better results than the standard technique of using a wire inserted into the breast, according to a new study published by Esgueva et al in the European Journal of Cancer. The findings were also...

geriatric oncology
symptom management

Effect of Geriatric Assessment Intervention on Patient-Reported Symptomatic Toxicity in Patients Aged 70 and Older Receiving Treatment for Advanced Cancer

In a secondary analysis of the Geriatric Assessment for Patients 70 Years and Older (GAP70+) trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Eva Culakova, PhD, MS, and colleagues found that providing geriatric assessment–based recommendations to community oncologists was associated with reduced ...

kidney cancer

5-Year Outcomes With Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma

In an individual patient meta-analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Shankar Siva, PhD, and colleagues found that patients receiving stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary localized renal cell carcinoma had long-term outcomes indicating that the treatment is safe and...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

5-Year Survival and Cure Fraction Estimates for Childhood Cancer in Europe From 2000 to 2014: EUROCARE-6

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Botta et al, the population-based EUROCARE-6 study has shown an improvement in 5-year survival rates and estimated cure fractions across patients with childhood cancers diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 vs previous years. Findings differed among cancer types and...

breast cancer

ALND vs Axillary Radiotherapy in Sentinel Node–Positive Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bartels et al, 10-year outcomes from the phase III EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial were similar with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) vs axillary radiotherapy in patients with cT1–2, node-negative breast cancer and a positive sentinel node...

breast cancer

Breast Cancer Advocate and Chief of Surgical Oncology at Howard University, Lori Wilson, MD, FACS, Dies

Lori Wilson, MD, FACS, was the first woman to hold the surgical oncology division chief position at Howard University Hospital and the first woman to be promoted to full professor in surgery at Howard University College of Medicine. Known as a fierce advocate for patients with cancer in underserved ...

head and neck cancer

A Laryngectomy Altered How I See Myself in the World

There is a 2-decades-long separation between the time I was diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in 1996 and my laryngectomy in 2016. The surgery was necessary because of the long-term damage to my larynx from the radiation therapy I received. In 1996, I had a low-grade sore throat...

cns cancers

Report on Brain Cancer: Crisis in the Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Community

A RECENT REPORT published in Neuro-Oncology1 exposes an alarming reality for children, adolescents, and families facing pediatric brain cancer across the country. The Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation (PBTF) funded this groundbreaking report by the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States...

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