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Immunotherapy

Key Predictors of Response Rates to PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor Therapy Across Cancer Types

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Lee and Ruppin found that CD8-positive T-cell abundance, tumor mutational burden, and high PD1 gene expression were the strongest predictors of response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) treatment across cancer...

Genomics/Genetics
Leukemia

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Prognosis in NPM1-Mutant AML

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Angenendt et al found that adverse-risk cytogenetics were associated with significantly poorer outcomes vs normal karyotype among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation.

As stated by the...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer

Results From the TAPUR Study on Palbociclib for Pancreatic Cancer and Cholangiocarcinoma

New results from ASCO’s Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry (TAPUR) study have demonstrated that single-agent palbociclib has no meaningful clinical activity in patients with CDKN2A-mutated or -deleted advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. These findings were...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

What Role Do Physicians Play in Health Promotion Among Patients With Cancer?

A recent study published by Stump et al in Cancer indicated that certain physicians who care for patients with cancer do not often promote healthy lifestyle changes to cancer survivors, and they may fear that providing such advice would distress or overwhelm patients. The findings are noteworthy...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Extended Follow-up of CheckMate 214: Nivolumab/Ipilimumab vs Sunitinib as First-Line Treatment for Advanced RCC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Robert J. Motzer, MD, and colleagues, extended follow-up of the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown a maintained survival benefit for first-line nivolumab/ipilimumab vs sunitinib in patients with previously untreated intermediate- or poor-risk advanced...

Survivorship
Issues in Oncology

Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Survivors of Adult Cancers

In a study reported in The Lancet, Strongman et al found that survivors of most site-specific cancers had an increased risk for one or more cardiovascular diseases during follow-up compared with a matched control group of patients without cancer.

This population-based cohort study employed...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

High-Deductible Health Plans, Access to Care, and Emergency Department Use Among Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Zheng et al found that patients with cancer and high-deductible health plans had increases in delayed/forgone care, an effect that was attenuated for those with health savings accounts. Emergency department use was similar across insurance...

Issues in Oncology

Exposure to Secondhand E-Cigarette Aerosols Increasing Among Middle and High School Students

A growing number of middle and high school students are being exposed to secondhand aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) by living with or being around individuals who are vaping, according to data from a national survey. Such exposure increased rapidly in 2018 compared to the years...

Colorectal Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Text Instructions and Reminders May Improve Colonoscopy Adherence Rates

Having text message conversations with patients 1 week before they are scheduled for a colonoscopy decreased “no-show” rates, according to a recent study published by Mahmud et al in Health Education & Behavior. Through sending reminders and instruction, the team increased the rate of...

Multiple Myeloma

Selinexor/Dexamethasone in Triple-Class Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase IIb STORM Part 2 study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Chari et al found that the combination of oral selinexor and dexamethasone produced responses in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to prior treatment with an alkylating agent, immunomodulatory agent, and...

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Prognostic Tool for Advanced, Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated With a Somatostatin Analog

In the GETNE-TRASGU study (Spanish Group of Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Tumors Treated With Analog of Somatostatin in Gastroenteropancreatic and Unknown Primary NETs) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Carmona-Bayonas et al developed a predictive model for progression-free survival in...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

FDA Issues Draft Guidance Encouraging Inclusion of Male Patients in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

A draft guidance issued by the U.S. Food Drug Administration (FDA) on August 26 includes draft recommendations for the inclusion of male patients in breast cancer clinical trials.

Historically, males either have not been included in clinical trials for drugs to treat breast cancer, or inclusion of ...

Pancreatic Cancer

Role of the YAP Regulatory Network in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Researchers have decoded a chain of molecules that are critical for the growth and survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. They say their findings, published by Murakami et al in Developmental Cell, suggest that inhibiting the YAP biologic network may effectively regress early-stage...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy and Reduced Mortality in Patients With Hepatitis C and a History of Liver Cancer

A study published by Singal et al in Gastroenterology demonstrated that treatment with antiviral therapy for hepatitis C reduced liver-related deaths by nearly 50% in patients with a history of liver cancer.

Previous Research

The finding builds on a December 2018 study by Singal et al also...

Immunotherapy
Skin Cancer

Phase Ib Trial of Toripalimab/Axitinib in Asian Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

In a Chinese phase Ib study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sheng et al reported activity with the combination of the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) agent toripalimab plus axitinib in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma.

As stated by the investigators, whereas...

issues in oncology

Cancer in Adults Aged 85 and Older: Rates, Screening, and Survival

A new report published by DeSantis et al in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians examined cancer statistics in adults 85 and older and found incidence and mortality trends are generally similar to those in people aged 65 to 84 years, but disease screening rates are unexpectedly high and survival is...

hepatobiliary cancer

Aspirin Use May Improve Liver Function After Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

According to research published by Boas et al in the American Journal of Roentgenology, aspirin therapy is associated with improved liver function test results and survival after transarterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Findings In a retrospective review of 304 patients, among the ...

issues in oncology

Patient vs Provider Views on Goals and Adverse Effects of Cancer Therapy

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Duckworth et al found that many patients with cancer had more optimistic treatment goals vs their physicians and that patients who did not understand adverse effects associated with treatment had higher distress scores. As stated by the...

bladder cancer

Enfortumab Vedotin in Platinum- and Anti–PD-1/L1–Pretreated Urothelial Carcinoma

In the phase II EV-201 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rosenberg et al found the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab vedotin showed high activity in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who had previously received platinum-based therapy and anti–programmed cell...

health-care policy
immunotherapy

CMS Finalizes Decision to Cover CAR T-Cell Therapy for Medicare Beneficiaries

On August 7, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) finalized the decision to cover U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy among recipients of Medicare benefits. FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies are approved to...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Androgen-Deprivation Therapy May Increase Risk for QT Prolongation and Torsades de Pointes

In a study published by Salem et al in Circulation, researchers examined how several testosterone-blocking drugs commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer affect the heart's QT interval. The longer a QT interval—typically measured by an electrocardiogram—the more at risk a ...

skin cancer

Is Vitamin A Intake Linked to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk?

People whose diets included high levels of vitamin A had a 17% reduction in risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, as compared to those who ate modest amounts of foods and supplements rich in vitamin A. These findings were published by Kim et al in JAMA Dermatology. Vitamin A is...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Comparison of Biomarker Assay Types in Predicting Response to Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Treatment

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Lu et al found that multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF) assays appeared to have greater accuracy vs other types of assays in predicting response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Maintenance Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed, or Both in Advanced Nonsquamous NSCLC

In the phase III ECOG-ACRIN 5508 trial, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ramalingam et al, maintenance pemetrexed or bevacizumab was associated with no significant improvement in overall survival vs the bevacizumab control group alone, and was associated with greater toxicity in...

breast cancer
cost of care

How Treatment Costs Affect Decisions for Breast Cancer Surgery

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Greenup et al found that cancer treatment costs influenced women’s decisions on breast cancer surgery. Researchers reported many women, even at the highest income levels, said that costs were higher than expected, and that most women...

symptom management
immunotherapy

What Causes Liver Injury During Treatment With Pembrolizumab?

Immunotherapy as a treatment for advanced solid cancers has rapidly evolved over the past decade—often yielding remarkable results. However, its use has also given way to new adverse effects, including drug-induced gastrointestinal and liver toxicities. “Checkpoint inhibitors are a...

breast cancer

AI May Improve Efficiency and Accuracy of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

Artificial intelligence (AI) may improve the efficiency and accuracy of an advanced imaging technology used to screen for breast cancer, according to a study published by Conant et al in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. Digital breast tomosynthesis is an advanced method for cancer...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Cell-Free DNA Sequencing Highly Concordant With Tissue-Based Testing in the Detection of Microsatellite Instability Status

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important predictive biomarker of response to immune checkpoint blockade in solid cancers. However, despite recommendations by clinical practice guidelines, MSI is often not assessed, usually due to tissue insufficiency, unavailability, or infeasibility....

leukemia
immunotherapy

Ibrutinib/Rituximab vs Standard Chemoimmunotherapy in Previously Untreated CLL

In an interim analysis of the phase III E1912 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Shanafelt et al found that ibrutinib/rituximab improved progression-free and overall survival vs standard chemoimmunotherapy in patients 70 years old or younger with previously untreated chronic...

gastroesophageal cancer

Can Lymph Node Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Predict Prognosis in Esophageal Cancer?

In a study published by Urakawa et al in Annals of Surgery, researchers found that the response of lymph nodes to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is more effective in predicting disease recurrence and patient survival in individuals with esophageal cancer than the response of primary tumors....

gynecologic cancer

Prognostic Biomarker for Progression of Moderate Cervical Dysplasia

In a study published by Louvanto et al in Clinical Infectious Diseases, researchers investigated the ability of a DNA methylation panel to determine between disease progression and regression among women of childbearing age with untreated cervical intraepithelial dysplasia. In the majority of...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Tumor-Associated Antigen Cytotoxic T Cells in Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors

In a phase I trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hont et al found that treatment of relapsed or refractory solid tumors with ex vivo expanded autologous multiantigen-associated specific cytotoxic T cells—or, tumor-associated antigen cytotoxic T cells—was safe and showed...

gynecologic cancer

Hysterectomy-Corrected Uterine Corpus Cancer Incidence in the United States

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Clarke et al found that hysterectomy-corrected rates of uterine corpus cancer—particularly nonendometrioid subtypes—have been increasing in the United States, with racial disparities in incidence and survival being observed. In...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Pexidartinib for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

On August 2, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval to pexidartinib (Turalio) capsules for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations and not responsive to improvement with...

solid tumors
skin cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Breakthrough Therapy for Melanoma, Investigational New Drug for Advanced Solid Tumors

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to bempegaldesleukin in combination with nivolumab for advanced melanoma and cleared an investigational new drug application for a phase I trial of SB 11285 in advanced solid tumors. Breakthrough...

lymphoma

Can Treatment With Antibiotics Inhibit Malignant T Cells in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma?

Many patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma contract Staphylococcus aureus infections in the skin. In a new study, researchers have shown that aggressive treatment with antibiotics for patients with these infections not only inhibits the staphylococcal bacteria—but also the cancer...

gynecologic cancer
issues in oncology

Psychological Stress and Cancer-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cervical Cancer

Results from a large cohort study showed that psychological stress is associated with increased cancer-specific mortality among women with cervical cancer, independent of tumor characteristics and treatment modality. The findings support the integration of psychological screening and intervention...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Post Hoc 5-Year Follow-up of Pembrolizumab vs Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

In a post hoc 5-year follow-up of the KEYNOTE-006 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robert et al found that pembrolizumab maintained overall and progression-free survival benefits over ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. In the primary analysis from the trial, both pembrolizumab...

prostate cancer

Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy vs Radical Prostatectomy Alone in Patients With Positive Margins or Extracapsular Extension

In patients with prostate cancer with surgical positive margins or extracapsular extension of their disease, the risk of disease recurrence postprostatectomy is higher than in cases where the cancer cells are confined within the prostate. The Finnish FinnProstataX study investigated...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

Global Burden of Pediatric and Adolescent Cancer in 2017

A recent analysis looked at the global burden of pediatric cancer through the lens of years of affected and lost life. This work shows a much greater burden of childhood cancer, placed largely in low- and middle-income countries, than previous estimates. The findings were published in The Lancet...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

Survey Finds Majority of Americans Are Unfamiliar With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Nearly-three quarters of Americans are not familiar with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common type of cancer in the United States, according to a new survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of The Skin Cancer Foundation. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is more common...

pancreatic cancer
immunotherapy

Durvalumab With or Without Tremelimumab in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

In the first stage of a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, O’Reilly et al found poor activity of durvalumab with or without tremelimumab in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Owing to the lack of efficacy, study expansion was not pursued.   The lead-in open-label safety ...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

Palbociclib Plus Cetuximab in Platinum- and Cetuximab-Resistant HPV-Unrelated Head and Neck Cancer

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Adkins et al found that the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib and the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab showed activity in patients with either platinum- or cetuximab-resistant human papillomavirus...

sarcoma

Pazopanib in Advanced Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

Findings from a cohort of a phase II study reported by Stacchiotti et al in The Lancet Oncology indicated activity of the antiangiogenic agent pazopanib in advanced extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As noted by the investigators, this rare sarcoma has low sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy,...

breast cancer

Ten-Year Update on Standard Adjuvant Chemotherapy vs Capecitabine in Older Women With Early Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Muss et al, long-term findings from the phase III CALGB 49907 trial support the finding from the primary analysis—that standard adjuvant chemotherapy improved recurrence-free survival vs capecitabine in women aged 65 years or older with early ...

gastroesophageal cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Some Patients With PD-L1–Positive Esophageal Cancer

On July 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus whose tumors express programmed ...

prostate cancer

FDA Approves Darolutamide for Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

On July 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved darolutamide (Nubeqa) for the treatment of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Approval was based on the ARAMIS study, a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 1,509 patients with...

breast cancer

Overall Survival With the Addition of Ribociclib to Endocrine Therapy in Advanced HR-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Im et al, an interim analysis of the phase III MONALEESA-7 trial has shown an overall survival benefit with the addition of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor ribociclib to endocrine therapy in pre- or perimenopausal women...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

WHO Releases Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic

Many governments are making progress in the fight against tobacco, with 5 billion people today living in countries that have introduced smoking bans, warnings on packaging, and other effective tobacco control measures—four times more people than a decade ago. However, a new World Health...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Abdominal Fat and Mortality in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

For patients with colorectal cancer, new research shows a clearer connection than previously known between fat deposits in certain areas of the body and higher rates of death from all causes within 7 years of cancer diagnosis. These findings were published by Brown et al in the Journal of the...

gynecologic cancer

Post Hoc Updated Survival Analysis of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy in High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by de Boer et al, a post hoc updated survival analysis of the phase III PORTEC-3 trial has shown a significant overall survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in women with high-risk endometrial cancer. A benefit in failure-free...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Rituximab Maintenance in Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma: 9-Year Follow-up

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bachy et al, 9-year follow-up of the phase III PRIMA trial indicated a maintained progression-free survival benefit of maintenance rituximab vs observation following first-line induction therapy for follicular lymphoma. As in the prior reports from ...

kidney cancer
lung cancer
skin cancer
immunotherapy

Five-Year Survival in Heavily Pretreated Patients Receiving Nivolumab Monotherapy

As reported by Topalian et al in JAMA Oncology, long-term follow up of patients from a phase I expansion cohort study indicated 5-year overall survival rates of 34.2%, 27.7%, and 15.6% among patients who received nivolumab monotherapy for advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and...

breast cancer
global cancer care

Automated Breast Cancer Detection Assay Using Fine-Needle Aspiration May Aid Patients in Developing Countries

A new laboratory test developed to identify chemical changes to a group of cancer-related genes may be able to accurately detect which breast tumors are cancerous or benign. Such a test could result in a more timely diagnosis of breast cancer for women in developing countries with less access to...

lymphoma

Germline BRCA2 Mutations and Risk of Pediatric or Adolescent Lymphoma

A research letter published by Wang et al in JAMA Oncology has found that inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene are linked to an increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. “The BRCA family of genes are known to be linked to risk for breast and...

bladder cancer

Erdafitinib in FGFR-Altered Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Loriot et al, the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-4 tyrosine kinase inhibitor erdafitinib showed activity in FGFR-altered advanced urothelial carcinoma. Study Details The study enrolled patients from sites in 14 countries between May...

prostate cancer

ARCHES: Enzalutamide Plus ADT in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Armstrong et al, findings from the phase III ARCHES trial have shown significant improvement in radiographic progression-free survival with enzalutamide plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) vs placebo plus ADT in men with metastatic...

breast cancer

Use of BI-RADS Breast Density and BCSC Risk to Identify Women for Discussion of Supplemental Imaging

In a study reported in JAMA Internal Medicine, Kerlikowske et al found that the combined use of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC)-defined risk for breast cancer may be an effective way of identifying women with dense...

leukemia
lung cancer
sarcoma
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Label Update for Durvalumab in NSCLC; Applications Accepted in Epithelioid Sarcoma, AML

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the inclusion of overall survival from the PACIFIC trial in the U.S. prescribing information for durvalumab and accepted applications for a new drug in the treatment of epithelioid sarcoma and two orphan drugs in the treatment of acute...

bladder cancer

Conditional Reprogramming of Urine Cultures for Bladder Cancer

A research team led by investigators from Georgetown University Medical Center and Fudan University in China has devised a noninvasive and individualized technique for detecting and treating bladder cancer. Their findings were published by Jiang et al in Protein & Cell. The method uses a...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Deep Natural Language Processing of Oncology Radiology Reports

Scientists have demonstrated that an artificial intelligence (AI) tool can perform as well as human reviewers—and much more rapidly—in extracting clinical information regarding changes in tumors from unstructured radiology reports for patients with lung cancer. These findings were...

issues in oncology

Clinical Deterioration Among Patients Hospitalized at a Tertiary Cancer Hospital

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Lyons et al found that transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) or on-ward death occurred in 9% of admissions to cancer wards at an urban tertiary cancer hospital. Investigators identified factors associated with clinical deterioration...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

In a Dutch phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Theelen et al found that although use of stereotactic body radiotherapy prior to pembrolizumab increased the objective response rate vs pembrolizumab alone in metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the difference did not meet study...

lymphoma
issues in oncology

FDA Requests Manufacturer Recall of Some Textured Breast Implants

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that Allergan, the manufacturer of a specific type of textured breast implant, recall specific models of its textured implants from the U.S. market due to the risk of breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)....

hepatobiliary cancer

Radiofrequency Ablation vs Minimally Invasive Surgery for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a retrospective analysis published by Si et al in Surgical Endoscopy, researchers found minimally invasive surgery led to higher survival and lower local recurrence in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma vs radiofrequency ablation, whereas radiofrequency ablation was associated with...

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