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issues in oncology

Cancer Screening Accessibility Among Native Americans

In a scientific e-poster presented during the 2022 American Roentgen Ray Society Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Peña et al noted that American Indian and Alaskan Native populations have nearly three times higher incidence rates of lung and colorectal cancer than other ethnic groups. These patterns...

issues in oncology

Cancer Rates Declining in Canada, but Cases and Deaths Increasing Because of Demographic Factors

Overall cancer rates in Canada are declining, but the number of cases and deaths are increasing slightly because of population growth and an aging population, according to a new study published by Brenner et al in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). The study is the result of a...

issues in oncology

Patients With Cancer Face Greater Risks From Abdominal Aneurysm Repair

Elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with a cancer diagnosis is associated with several poor postoperative outcomes, according to a newly published study from researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine. Roush et al reported their findings in the Journal of...

gastroesophageal cancer
genomics/genetics

Study Identifies Genetic Changes in Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus That Progresses to Esophageal Cancer

Using whole-genome sequencing to contrast genomic alterations in patients with stable Barrett’s esophagus compared to patients whose Barrett’s progressed to esophageal adenocarcinoma, Paulson et al reported that DNA changes presaging esophageal cancer can be spotted years before cancer develops....

issues in oncology

Increased Risk of Cancer in Early Life Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

In the largest and most detailed population-based cohort study to date, researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm found that individuals with autism spectrum disorders, when present with comorbid intellectual disability and/or birth defects, were at a higher risk of cancer in early...

issues in oncology
immunotherapy

Gut Microbiome May Alter Response to Cancer Therapy

Recent findings with the use of sequencing technology have suggested that the gut microbiome may play a role in the treatment of cancer. A review paper published in JAMA Oncology by Liu and Shah captured the current understanding of the connection between the gut microbiome and therapeutic response ...

issues in oncology

How to Get the Dose Right

OCE Insights is an occasional column developed for The ASCO Post by members of the Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this installment, Mirat Shah, MD, of the Office of Oncologic Diseases, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, FDA; Atiqur...

hematologic malignancies
immunotherapy

Study Finds CAR T-Cell Therapy Outcomes, Side Effects Are Similar in Black and Hispanic Patients Compared to White and Asian Patients

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has revolutionized the treatment of blood cancers, including certain leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. However, Black and Hispanic patients were largely absent from the major clinical trials that led to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration...

covid-19

Updated Guidance for COVID-19 Vaccination From NCCN Recommends Fifth mRNA Shot (Second Booster Dose) for Immunocompromised People

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) has released the latest recommendations from the NCCN Advisory Committee on COVID-19 Vaccination and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. The updated recommendations point to two booster vaccine doses for people who are immunocompromised (meaning three...

prostate cancer

Matthew R. Smith, PhD, MD, on Prostate Cancer: Phase III Data on Darolutamide, Androgen Deprivation, and Docetaxel

Matthew R. Smith, PhD, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, discusses overall survival findings from the ARASENS trial, which assessed the efficacy of the androgen receptor inhibitor darolutamide vs placebo in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy and docetaxel for patients...

issues in oncology
genomics/genetics

Priscilla K. Brastianos, MD, on CNS Metastases: Understanding Their Evolution and the Clinical Implications

Priscilla K. Brastianos, MD, of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, talks about her efforts to better understand how brain metastases evolve genomically and to test such agents as abemaciclib, paxalisib, and entrectinib, which may stop their growth. Palbociclib, a CDK...

gynecologic cancers
breast cancer
pancreatic cancer
prostate cancer
genomics/genetics

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, on Ovarian, Breast, Pancreatic, and Prostate Cancers With Genetic Mutations: A First-in-Human Trial of AZD5305

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses results from the PETRA study, a first-in-class, first-in-human trial of the next-generation PARP1-selective inhibitor AZD5305 in patients with BRCA1/2, PALB2, or RAD51C/D mutations in advanced or metastatic...

issues in oncology

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, on Developing Novel Therapeutic Strategies to Target DNA Damage Response in the Clinic

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses how research is building on the success of first-generation PARP inhibitors in the clinic and the potential of novel potent PARP1-selective inhibitors, which may lead to improved patient outcomes. Given...

solid tumors

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, on Advanced Solid Tumors With DNA Damage Response Defects: Early Data on Elimusertib

Timothy A. Yap, MBBS, PhD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses results from a phase Ib expansion trial of the safety and efficacy of the oral ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) inhibitor elimusertib in advanced solid tumors with DNA damage response defects....

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Gulam A. Manji, MD, PhD, on Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinomas: New Data on Pembrolizumab Plus Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin

Gulam A. Manji, MD, PhD, of Columbia University Medical Center, discusses phase II results on perioperative combination chemotherapy and pembrolizumab in patients with resectable gastric cancer. The combination appeared to result in many complete pathologic responses (Abstract CT009).

issues in oncology
immunotherapy

Lillian L. Siu, MD, on Looking Toward the Future of Clinical Research and Clinical Trials

Lillian L. Siu, MD, of Canada’s Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, discusses biomarker-driven precision cancer medicine, the optimal sequencing of immunotherapy (IO) with standard treatments in curative settings, IO targets beyond PD-1/PD-L1 and combinatorial strategies, and next-generation adoptive...

issues in oncology

Marcia R. Cruz-Correa, MD, PhD, on a Vision for the Future of Cancer Research and Treatment

Marcia R. Cruz-Correa, MD, PhD, of the University of Puerto Rico Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses a way to possibly transform cancer outcomes by teaming up basic scientists, clinical researchers, and community advocates to work together, decode the complexity of cancer, and find points at...

breast cancer

Some Recurrences of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ May Be Genetically Distinct From the Primary Tumor, Study Reports

Contrary to what has been assumed, all recurrences of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are not genetically the same, according to a study presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2022.1 Almost 20% of ipsilateral recurrences found in the study were genetically...

issues in oncology

Two Studies Examine Use of Proton-Beam Therapy in the United States

Two new, large studies led by researchers at the American Cancer Society showed an increase in the use of proton-beam therapy for patients with cancer in the United States during the past decade. However, Black patients were less likely to receive proton-beam therapy than White patients, and the...

breast cancer

New Study Examining Women’s Breast Density Knowledge Suggests Opportunities for Improvement

Breast density is one factor in assessing a person’s risk of developing breast cancer. Existing breast density notification laws have increased awareness among patients and providers, but clinical records had not been incorporated in studies to confirm the accuracy of personal breast density...

supportive care

Study Examines Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and Self-Harm Among Patients Diagnosed Across 26 Cancer Types

The risk of self-harm after incident psychiatric disorder diagnosis in patients with 26 cancer types and the risk of unnatural deaths after self-harm were examined in 459,542 individuals in a study published by Chang et al in Nature Medicine. Patients with cancer may experience substantial...

bladder cancer

AI May Assist Physicians in Better Assessing the Effectiveness of Bladder Cancer Treatment

In a small multi-institutional study, an artificial intelligence (AI)-based system improved providers’ assessments of whether patients with bladder cancer had complete response to chemotherapy before a radical cystectomy. These findings were published by Sun et al in Tomography. Yet the researchers ...

Erratum

In the article “OlympiA Trial: Adjuvant Olaparib Significantly Improves Overall Survival in Germline BRCA-Mutated Breast Cancer,” which began on page 1 of the April 10 issue of The ASCO Post, a few unfortunate errors appeared, notably an incorrect P value for the overall survival comparison (after...

Tony Hunter, PhD, FAACR, Honored With 2022 AACR Award for Lifetime Achievement in Cancer Research

The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) awarded the 2022 AACR Award for Lifetime Achievement in Cancer Research to Tony Hunter, PhD, FAACR, Fellow of the AACR Academy, at its Annual Meeting in New Orleans. Dr. Hunter is the American Cancer Society Professor and Renato Dulbecco Chair at ...

survivorship

From Iran to Silicon Valley, a Cancer Survivor Shares Her Story

The Iranian revolution of 1979 transformed Iran from an absolute monarchy under Shah Mohammad Pahlavi to an Islamist republic under Ayatollah Khomeini. The author of a new book called The Magic of Normal, Maky Zanganeh, PhD, was born in Iran in 1970. As a young woman, she experienced the war in her ...

Expert Point of View: Amandeep Salhotra, MD

Amandeep Salhotra, MD, Associate Professor of Leukemia at City of Hope, in California, said this study should form the basis for a prospective phase III study in which older patients with AML (60–75 years) should have equal chance at randomization to either arm to remove bias on the part of...

breast cancer

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Therapy for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: The Paradigm Shifts

The “holy grail” of triple-negative breast cancer therapy has been effective incorporation of drugs to improve outcomes in the early nonmetastatic setting. Although outcomes have improved with better chemotherapy drugs and schedules, triple-negative breast cancer still carries the worst prognosis...

gynecologic cancers

MEK Inhibition Is Now a Standard of Care in Recurrent Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: What Next?

As summarized in this issue of The ASCO Post, the highly anticipated results of the GOG 281/LOGS study, which randomly assigned patients with recurrent low-grade serous ovarian cancer to the MEK inhibitor trametinib vs standard-of-care chemotherapy or endocrine therapy, have now been reported by...

issues in oncology

New Report Offers Guidance for Standardizing Data on Sex, Gender, Sexual Orientation

On March 9, 2022, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) issued a new report, Measuring Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation, recommending the National Institutes of Health (NIH) implement new guidelines to standardize the collection of data on sex, gender,...

War in Ukraine: Statistics Do Not Keep Pace With Reality

Editor’s Note: The following is adapted from Dr. Hrynkiv’s presentation at the March 18 ASCO/ECO Briefing: Cancer Care During the War in Ukraine. Find resources for impacted patients and providers at asco.org/ukraine and onco-help.org. Official statistics regarding damage and losses in Ukraine are...

Philip D. Greenberg, MD, FAACR, Voted AACR President-Elect for 2022–2023

The members of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) have chosen Philip D. Greenberg, MD, FAACR, as the Association’s President-Elect for 2022–2023. Dr. Greenberg is the Rona Jaffe Foundation Endowed Chair and Professor and Head of the Program in Immunology, Clinical Research...

solid tumors

Clinical Trials Updates in the Treatment of Older Adults With Gastrointestinal Malignancies

The theme of the 2022 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium was “Accelerating Access to Precision Care Through Innovation.” Several studies presented at this meeting focused on older patients, who represent the majority of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Data reviewed at the meeting...

Norman Sharpless, MD, to Step Down as Director of the NCI

Norman E. Sharpless, MD, has announced that he has decided to step down from his position as Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a position he has held since 2017. Dr. Sharpless will continue as NCI Director through April 29, 2022, to...

breast cancer

Phase III Trial Evaluates the Role of Aspirin in Preventing Breast Cancer Recurrence

Taking aspirin daily does not prevent breast cancer recurrence, according to research presented during the February ASCO Plenary Series Program.1 Results of the double-blind phase III study of more than 3,000 patients with high-risk, HER2-negative breast cancer showed no improvement in invasive...

gynecologic cancers

Why Are Many Women Overdue for Cervical Cancer Screening?

Cervical cancer screening has reduced new cases and deaths from the disease over the past 50 years. However, the percentage of women in the United States who are overdue for cervical cancer screening has been growing, and the reasons have not been clear. To better understand the decline in cervical ...

Andrew Chapman, DO, FACP, Appointed Director of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center–Jefferson Health, Philadelphia

Andrew Chapman, DO, FACP, has been named Director of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center–Jefferson Health, with locations in Philadelphia and nearby areas in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He has also been named the Center’s Executive Vice President for Oncology Services. He has served as the Center’s...

Fox Chase Cancer Center Appoints Elizabeth Plimack, MD, MS, as Deputy Director

Elizabeth Plimack, MD, MS, has been appointed to Deputy Director at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, according to Jonathan Chernoff, MD, PhD, Cancer Center Director at Fox Chase. Dr. Plimack is Chief of the Division of Genitourinary Medical Oncology and Professor in the Department of...

prostate cancer

Less Prostate Cancer Screening Reduces Overdiagnosis but May Miss Aggressive Cases

Over the past 15 years, public health authorities have downgraded recommendations for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool to reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with low-grade prostate cancer. Researchers from Weill Cornell Medicine have found that while these ...

breast cancer

New Factors That Can Predict Breast Cancer Recurrence Identified

Genetics and other factors that can determine if a woman is at risk for a recurrence of breast cancer have been identified by investigators at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, providing new research avenues for preventing a new tumor from developing. The discovery was made possible...

lung cancer

CHOICE-01: Toripalimab Plus Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Advanced NSCLC Without Actionable Mutations

Adding the PD-1 inhibitor toripalimab to chemotherapy significantly improved survival compared with chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR/ALK mutations, according to research presented during the 2022 ASCO Monthly Plenary Series.1 At the...

Expert Point of View: Julie A. Margenthaler, MD, FACS

Julie A. Margenthaler, MD, FACS, Professor of Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, told The ASCO Post that routine clinical examination may not be enough to properly identify lymph node involvement in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. “Given that we now have...

issues in oncology

Phase III Trials and Tribulations

Imagine this. You are a large pharmaceutical company that launches an international randomized phase III trial to assess whether one of your drugs improves the outcome of patients with a common type of cancer. The trial was solidly backed by preclinical evidence that the drug target was essential ...

Expert Point of View: Adil Daud, MBBS, and Georgina V. Long, MBBS, PhD

The invited discussant of the RELATIVITY-047 trial, Adil Daud, MBBS, said the findings1 “mark a major advance for immunotherapy beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1” as upfront treatment for advanced melanoma. However, the findings trigger a host of questions for clinicians. Dr. Daud is Co-Director of the...

skin cancer

RELATIVITY-047 Update: Novel Immunotherapy Duo Delays Disease Progression in Advanced Melanoma

A novel immunotherapeutic combination that targets PD-1 and the LAG-3 pathway significantly delayed disease progression as a first-line treatment of advanced or unresectable melanoma. Updated results of the global phase III RELATIVITY-047 trial validated the study’s initial findings and were...

health-care policy
cost of care

Study Shows Medical Financial Hardship Increases Mortality Risk for Cancer Survivors

New findings from a large national study led by researchers at the American Cancer Society (ACS) show cancer survivors in the United States who reported medical financial hardship had a higher mortality risk than cancer survivors without financial hardship. Medical financial hardship was measured...

Virtual Panel Explores Impact of Racism on the Cancer Burden Facing Asian Americans

On July 21, 2021, the Oncology Center of Excellence at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a panel discussion entitled “Conversations on Cancer” to address the significant cancer disparities facing Asian Americans. The virtual “conversation” focused on the unfair burden impacting...

Nominations Open for King Hussein Award for Cancer Research

The Board of Directors for the King Hussein Award for Cancer Research is currently accepting applications for its 2022 honorees. Established in 2020 in memory of His Majesty the late King Hussein bin Talal of Jordan, the award promotes and celebrates cancer research efforts across the Arab world,...

genomics/genetics
issues in oncology

Cheryl L. Willman, MD, on Cancer Genomic Sequencing in Tribal Nations of the American Southwest

Cheryl L. Willman, MD, of the Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses the profound cancer health disparities among Native Americans, exacerbated by low rates of screening and limited access to care. Dr. Willman is heading an effort to promote community engagement in comprehensive genomic ...

gastroesophageal cancer

Zev Wainberg, MD, on Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma: Early Results With Anti-CD39 Antibody Plus Chemoimmunotherapy

Zev Wainberg, MD, of the University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, discusses preliminary data on the safety and efficacy of TTX-030, an anti-CD39 antibody, in combination with budigalimab and FOLFOX for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic gastric or...

lung cancer

David A. Barbie, MD, on Mesothelioma: Activating the STING Pathway May Promote Antitumor Immunity

David A. Barbie, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses his laboratory’s studies, showing that malignant pleural mesothelioma, an inflamed cancer type with marginal response to immune checkpoint blockade, demonstrated high tumor cell STING expression and response to STING agonists in...

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