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hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

Durvalumab/Tremelimumab Improves Overall Survival vs Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: HIMALAYA

Results from the randomized international phase III HIMALAYA trial showed that a combination of the anti–PD-L1 immunotherapy durvalumab plus the anti–CTLA-4 immunotherapy tremelimumab reduced the risk of death by 22% in patients with stage III or IV unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma compared to ...

lung cancer

Personalized Lung Cancer Risk Assessment Using a Blood-Based Biomarker Panel

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fahrmann et al found that a four-component blood-based biomarker panel showed predictive ability for the development of lung cancer. Prediction was improved when the panel was used in conjunction with the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and...

supportive care
symptom management

Study Finds Direct Oral Anticoagulants Significantly Decrease Recurrent Venous Thrombosis for Adult Patients With Cancer

Direct oral anticoagulants should be considered the standard of care to treat adult patients with cancer-associated thrombosis, according to a new, ongoing study by Mayo Clinic researchers published by Riaz et al in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. The report examined the results of four randomized...

leukemia

Inotuzumab Ozogamicin for Pediatric Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell ALL

In a phase II trial (Children’s Oncology Group AALL1621) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, O’Brien et al found that inotuzumab ozogamicin produced a high response rate in children and adolescents with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Study Details In the ...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of Nivolumab to Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy for HER2-Negative, Unresectable, Advanced or Recurrent Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

In an Asian phase II/III trial (ATTRACTION-4) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Yoon-Koo Kang, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of nivolumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy improved progression-free survival—but not overall survival—as first-line treatment of HER2-negative, unresectable, ...

issues in oncology

Recent Study Aims to Improve the Quality of Cancer Care in Rural Areas

Despite growing national awareness of health-care inequities, cancer care for many rural Americans remains inadequate. To shed some light on the challenges faced by patients with cancer in rural areas, The ASCO Post spoke with Mary Charlton, PhD, Associate Professor of Epidemiology in the...

immunotherapy

Yevgeniy R. Semenov, MD, on Cutaneous Immune-Related Adverse Events and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Yevgeniy R. Semenov, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, discusses new findings suggesting cutaneous adverse events such as vitiligo, lichenoid dermatitis, and psoriasis—which often occur in patients with cancer who receive immune checkpoint inhibitors—may be strongly...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

Durvalumab Plus Gemcitabine/Cisplatin Improves Survival in Patients With Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer: TOPAZ-1

Biliary tract cancer is a rare and often fatal disease comprised primarily of bile duct and gallbladder cancers; it is diagnosed in about 12,000 individuals each year in the United States. The cancer has a 5-year relative survival rate of 25% for localized intrahepatic bile duct cancers and just...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancers

Expert Point of View: Steven J. Isakoff, MD, PhD

Steven J. Isakoff, MD, PhD, Director of Breast Cancer Clinical Research at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, found the TAMARISK study “interesting.” “Looking at genomic profiles of uterine cancer in both tamoxifen-associated uterine cancer, the researchers found a lower frequency of PIK3...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancers

PI3K Pathway Activation May Underlie Tamoxifen-Associated Uterine Cancer

Even though it is infrequent, uterine cancer can develop in patients treated with tamoxifen. A study presented at the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) suggests that the mechanism by which uterine cancers develop is tamoxifen-induced PI3K pathway activation.1 Patients treated with...

gynecologic cancers

Study Finds Guideline-Concordant Cervical Cancer Screening Dropped From 2005 to 2019 Among Women in the United States

Rates of cervical cancer screening have dropped recently in the United States, with screening rates lowest among Asian and Hispanic women, as well as women who live in rural areas, are uninsured, or are sexual minorities, according to findings published by Ryan Suk, PhD, and colleagues in JAMA...

global cancer care

UICC to Launch 3-Year Campaign to Create More Equitable Access to Cancer Services

On February 4, 2022, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) will launch a new 3-year campaign for World Cancer Day that brings together individuals, organizations, and governments around the world in an effort to create awareness and help close the gap in cancer care. The campaign...

hematologic malignancies

Interferon-Alfa vs Hydroxyurea in Previously Untreated Patients With Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia

In a phase III trial (MPD-RC 112) reported in the journal Blood, John Mascarenhas, MD, and colleagues found no difference in 12-month complete response rates between treatment with pegylated interferon-alfa vs hydroxyurea in previously untreated patients with high-risk polycythemia vera or...

breast cancer
supportive care

Depression Screening and Behavioral Health Referrals for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer in the Community Oncology Setting

In a study reported in JAMA, Hahn et al found that a depression screening and intervention program resulted in a higher rate of referral to behavioral health services vs education alone among patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer at community oncology centers located in Southern California....

lymphoma

Tycel Phillips, MD, on Marginal Zone Lymphoma: Efficacy and Safety of Parsaclisib

Tycel Phillips, MD, of the Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, discusses phase II findings from the CITADEL-204 study of parsaclisib, a next-generation inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The agent, used as a monotherapy, appeared to benefit patients with relapsed or refractory...

prostate cancer

New Study Examines Genetic Effects on Genitourinary Toxicity in Patients With Prostate Cancer

Although radiation can be an effective therapy for prostate cancer, about one in six men will experience more frequent or painful urination as a lingering side effect. These disruptive genitourinary toxicities can occur whether the patient receives conventionally fractionated radiotherapy or...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Durvalumab/Tremelimumab With or Without Radiotherapy in Resistant NSCLC

In a recent phase II clinical trial, the combination of the PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab and the CTLA-4 inhibitor tremelimumab curtailed tumor growth in some patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that was resistant to a single immunotherapy agent. The addition of radiation therapy to the...

gastrointestinal cancer

Presurgical Chemosensitivity May Play a Role in Informing Postsurgical Treatment for Patients With Gastric Cancer

A study published by Deng et al in JAMA Network Open showed that chemotherapy after surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly associated with longer survival in patients with chemosensitive disease, but not in those with very sensitive or refractory disease. These findings suggest that...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

First-Line Nivolumab/Cabozantinib vs Sunitinib for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Patient-Reported Outcomes

In an analysis from the phase III CheckMate 9ER trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, David Cella, PhD, FASCO, and colleagues found that nivolumab/cabozantinib was associated with maintained or improved patient-reported outcomes vs sunitinib in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell...

breast cancer

Addition of Capecitabine to Taxane/Anthracycline Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: 15-Year Overall Survival Results of the FinXX Trial

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Heikki Joensuu, MD, and colleagues, 15-year overall survival results from the Finland Capecitabine Trial (FinXX) showed that the addition of capecitabine to taxane/anthracycline adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved overall survival...

thyroid cancer
genomics/genetics

Association of Genetic Alterations With Disease Characteristics and Response to Treatment in Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Franco et al found that RET and NTRK fusions were common somatic genetic alterations in pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and were associated with an increased risk of metastasis and poorer treatment outcome. Study ...

Relatlimab Plus Nivolumab Improves PFS in Patients With Previously Untreated Metastatic or Unresectable Melanoma

On this episode, we’ll hear about a combination therapy that improved progression-free survival (PFS) in previously untreated patients with melanoma. Then, we’ll hear about a report that looked into the effects of prior radiotherapy on the development of adverse events in patients treated with...

breast cancer

Expert Point of View: Anne Blaes, MD, MS, and Virginia Kaklamani, MD

Commenting on the update of RxPONDER presented at the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were Anne Blaes, MD, MS, Associate Professor of Hematology/Oncology at the University of Minnesota and Co-Director of the Screening, Prevention, Etiology and Cancer Survivorship Program at the Masonic...

breast cancer

RxPONDER Update Explores Benefit of Chemotherapy in Subgroups

Updated results of the SWOG S1007 RxPONDER trial confirmed the key takeaway from the previous analysis: adjuvant chemotherapy benefits premenopausal women but not postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative disease, one to three positive lymph nodes, and a 21-gene Oncotype DX ...

Expert Point of View: Mikkael A. Sekeres, MD

Mikkael A. Sekeres, MD, of Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, called the results of the AGILE study “very promising.” He moderated a press briefing that featured the abstract at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting & Exposition. “Patients with the...

leukemia

Study Finds Improved 2-Year Survival Rate for Adult Patients With Relapsed Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive ALL After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Over 20 Years

A retrospective, registry-based multicenter study by Bazarbachi et al published in Clinical Cancer Research evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with relapsed Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation over a...

leukemia

AGILE Study: Addition of Ivosidenib to Azacitidine Triples Median Overall Survival in Difficult-to-Treat AML Population

In patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an IDH1 mutation who were ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, the addition of the IDH1 inhibitor ivosidenib to azacitidine significantly improved survival vs azacitidine alone, according to data presented at the 2021 American...

prostate cancer

Educational Intervention Increases Knowledge About Prostate Cancer and Intention to Screen Among High-Risk Patients

In a study published by Charnita Zeigler-Johnson, PhD, MPH, and colleagues in the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, gathering men at high risk for developing prostate cancer for discussion about prostate cancer or other health concerns increased their knowledge about prostate cancer...

gastroesophageal cancer

New Research Aims to Uncover Cellular Source of Barrett’s Esophagus

Two recent studies correct a long-standing misconception about the origins of Barrett’s esophagus and, in doing so, may point to new avenues of treatment or prevention to lower the risk of esophageal cancer. The first study, published by Singh et al in the journal Gastroenterology, demonstrated...

issues in oncology

Composition of Academic Radiation Oncology Workforces in National Cancer Institute–Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, McClelland et al found that among academic radiation oncologists at National Cancer Institute–designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers (CCCs), less than 5% were from underrepresented minority groups, senior faculty included more men than women, and women ...

solid tumors
sarcoma

Antibiotics After Endoprosthetic Reconstruction for Lower-Extremity Bone Tumors: Comparison of Two Intravenous Regimens

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, researchers in the Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery Investigators group found that 5 days vs 1 day of postoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of surgical site infection and was associated with more...

gynecologic cancers

Paclitaxel/Carboplatin vs Paclitaxel/Ifosfamide in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients With Uterine Carcinosarcoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Powell et al, the phase III NRG Oncology GOG-0261 trial has shown that paclitaxel/carboplatin is noninferior to paclitaxel/ifosfamide in terms of overall survival among chemotherapy-naive patients with uterine carcinosarcoma. Study Details The...

immunotherapy
solid tumors
colorectal cancer
head and neck cancer

Mehmet Altan, MD, on Solid Tumors: Interim Safety and Efficacy Results on NKTR-255 Plus Cetuximab

Mehmet Altan, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses findings from a phase Ib dose-escalation study, which showed early evidence of activity for NKTR-255, an investigational IL-15 receptor agonist, plus cetuximab in patients with solid tumors. Treatment appeared to lead ...

issues in oncology

Lynda Chin, MD, on the Landscape and Future of Digital Medicine

Lynda Chin, MD, of the University of Texas, Austin Dell Medical School and Apricity Health, discusses precision medicine, barriers to its progress, and the challenges that must be met to facilitate better outcomes for patients. Building evidence and trust is key, Dr. Chin explains, as is developing ...

prostate cancer

Role of Expression of ERV RNA in Prostate Cancer

A molecular feature in prostate cancer called endogenous retroviral (ERV) RNA has been found to have prognostic value and also distinguish differences between prostate tumors in men of African and European or Middle Eastern ancestry, according to a study published by Kumar et al in the journal...

global cancer care

Global Burden of Cancer From 2010 to 2019

In an analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, researchers in the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Cancer Collaboration found a global increase in new cases of cancer, cancer deaths, and cancer-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) between 2010 and 2019, with aspects of cancer burden differing...

multiple myeloma

Report Describes Identification of a Novel Therapeutic Target for Multiple Myeloma

Proteasome inhibitors, the therapeutic backbone of current treatments for multiple myeloma, are effective in treating newly diagnosed disease, but resistance or intolerance to these molecules often develop, leading to relapse. While studying a neglected tropical disease, Buruli ulcer, researchers...

immunotherapy

Is the Development of Cutaneous Immune-Related Adverse Events Correlated With Response to Immunotherapy?

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become the standard of care for many patients with advanced cancers; however, these medications cause cutaneous adverse events in 20% to 40% of all patients who receive them. A study by Tang et al published in JAMA Dermatology indicated that these side effects may...

breast cancer

Meredith M. Regan, ScD, on Early Breast Cancer: Updated Results From the TEXT and SOFT Trials

Meredith M. Regan, ScD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses findings that point to the potential benefits of using adjuvant exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) to treat premenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive early breast cancer. This conclusion came after 13 years...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, MD, PhD, on Making Strides in Managing Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, MD, PhD, of Dana-Farber Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center, discusses the progress made in recent years treating patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), including approval of the immunotherapy agents pembrolizumab and sacituzumab govitecan-hziy, a new standard of ...

gastrointestinal cancer

Association of Autoantibodies to Gastric Mucosa and Risk of Gastric Cancer

In a case-control study reported in JAMA Oncology, Minkyo Song, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that seropositivity for gastric antiparietal cell antibodies (APCAs) was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among younger Finnish women who were seronegative for antibodies to Helicobacter ...

hepatobiliary cancer

ASTRO Issues Clinical Guideline on External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Primary Liver Cancers

A clinical guideline from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) provides guidance on the use of radiation therapy to treat adult patients with primary liver cancers using external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Evidence-based recommendations outline indications and optimal EBRT...

Expert Point of View: Ciara O’Sullivan, MB, BCh, BAO

Invited discussant Ciara O’Sullivan, MB, BCh, BAO, of Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, commented on the DESTINY-Breast03 trial at the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. “The treatment of HER2-positive disease is an evolving landscape, with eight approved agents. Despite this rapid...

survivorship

Effect of Daily Sitting Time and Weekly Physical Activity on Cancer Survivorship

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Cao et al found that the combination of increased daily sitting time and low weekly leisure-time physical activity was associated with poorer overall and cancer-specific survival among U.S. cancer survivors. Study Details The study involved data from a...

breast cancer

Second-Line T-DXd Improves Progression-Free Survival Across HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Subgroups

The antibody-drug conjugate fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki (T-DXd) lengthened progression-free survival and improved objective response rate compared to the antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) after trastuzumab and taxane therapy in women with HER2-positive metastatic breast...

hematologic malignancies

New Study Examines Septic Shock in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

Research published by Manjappachar et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network examined the impact of septic shock on people with hematologic malignancies. They found that the mortality rate was 67.8% at 28 days, and only 19.4% of patients remained alive after 90 days. The...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab vs Sunitinib in Previously Untreated Patients With Metastatic RCC: Final Overall Survival Analysis of IMmotion151

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Robert J. Motzer, MD, and colleagues, the final overall survival analysis of the phase III IMmotion151 trial has shown no significant difference for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sunitinib in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma...

cns cancers

Is There an Association Between Maternal Hormonal Contraception Use and Risk of CNS Tumors in Children?

In a Danish nationwide cohort study reported in JAMA, Hargreave et al found no association between maternal hormonal contraception use and risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children. As stated by the investigators, “The incidence of CNS tumors in children appears to be increasing, yet...

palliative care

Palliative Care Use Among Commercially Insured U.S. Patients With Metastatic Cancer: 2001–2016

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Ferrario et al found that while use of palliative care among commercially insured patients aged 25 to 64 years in the United States with metastatic cancer has increased since 2001, use remained at 40% among patients with very poor–prognosis cancers in...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Romanos Sklavenitis-Pistofidis, MD, on Smoldering Myeloma: Identifying Biomarkers of Response to Immunotherapy

Romanos Sklavenitis-Pistofidis, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses study findings on a next generation of clinical assays to assess both tumor biology and immune state, as well as common clinical biomarkers in the marrow or blood. These biomarkers may accurately predict which patients...

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