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In the Literature

Head and Neck Cancer

Lobaplatin- vs Cisplatin-Based Induction and Chemoradiotherapy in Previously Untreated Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  June 10, 2021

In a Chinese phase III trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Xing Lv, MD, and colleagues found noninferior progression-free survival with induction therapy with the third-generation platinum lobaplatin/fluorouracil (5-FU) vs cisplatin/5-FU, followed by lobaplatin- vs cisplatin-based chemoradiothera...

Gynecologic Cancers

Tisotumab Vedotin in Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  June 10, 2021

In a phase II study (innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robert L. Coleman, MD, and colleagues found that the antibody-drug conjugate tisotumab vedotin produced durable responses in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. In the tria...

Gynecologic Cancers

Overall Survival With Olaparib vs Placebo Maintenance in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive Relapsed Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Mutation

Matthew Stenger  /  May 10, 2021

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Andrés Poveda, MD, and colleagues, the phase III SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21 trial has shown a large numeric but statistically nonsignificant improvement in the secondary endpoint of overall survival with olaparib tablet maintenance therapy vs placebo in patients with plat...

Gastroesophageal Cancer
Gastrointestinal Cancer
Immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in Microsatellite Instability–High Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  May 10, 2021

In an analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Joseph Chao, MD, and colleagues found improved outcomes with pembrolizumab treatment in patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer, irrespective of line of treatment. The findings suggest that M...

Bladder Cancer

Hypofractionated vs Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  April 10, 2021

In an individual patient-level meta-analysis of two phase III trials reported in The Lancet Oncology, Choudhury et al found that a hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen was associated with improved invasive locoregional control and similar toxicity vs a standard fractionation regimen in patients w...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Salpingo-Oophorectomy to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk in Women With BRCA1 or BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants May Also Reduce Breast Cancer Risk

Matthew Stenger  /  April 10, 2021

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Choi et al found that risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer within 5 years after surgery, with evidence of longer-term risk reduction among those with BRCA1 varian...

Pancreatic Cancer

mFOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Improved Overall Survival?

Matthew Stenger  /  March 10, 2021

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Davendra P.S. Sohal, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that neither of two perioperative chemotherapy regimens was associated with improved overall survival in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with historical rates in adjuv...

Global Cancer Care

Development and Performance of a Population-Based Benchmark Model for Use of Cancer Surgery in High-Income Countries

Matthew Stenger  /  March 10, 2021

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Perera et al developed a population-based benchmark model for guideline-recommended use of surgery for primary cancers in high-income countries. Actual use of surgery was often consistent with model predictions but sometimes varied markedly. Study Details...

COVID-19

Changes in Radiotherapy Use in England During the First Peak of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Matthew Stenger  /  March 10, 2021

In a population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Spencer et al found that mean weekly radiotherapy courses for cancer and attendance for receipt of fractions declined significantly during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. However, use of hypofractionated radiotherapy ra...

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer–Specific Mortality by Race/Ethnicity and 21-Gene Recurrence Scores

Matthew Stenger  /  March 10, 2021

In a U.S. population–based cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Hoskins et al found that among patients with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, Black women were more likely than White women to have a high Oncotype DX 21-gene recurrence score. Researchers also found that breast cancer–speci...

Solid Tumors

Capivasertib for AKT1 E17K–Mutated Metastatic Cancers: NCI-MATCH Subprotocol EAY131-Y

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini  /  February 10, 2021

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Kevin Kalinsky, MD, MS, and colleagues, the NCI-MATCH trial’s phase II subprotocol EAY131-Y has shown activity of the pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib in a range of metastatic tumors with an AKT1 E17K mutation. The phase II trial enrolled 35 evaluable adult patients ...

Solid Tumors

Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy in Extracranial Oligometastatic Cancers

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini  /  February 10, 2021

In a registry-based observational study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Anastasia Chalkidou, PhD, and colleagues found that stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) was associated with high overall survival and low rates of toxicity in patients with extracranial oligometastatic cancers. The ...

Hematologic Malignancies

Addition of Sitagliptin to Prophylaxis for Acute Graft-vs-Host Disease

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini  /  February 10, 2021

In a phase II trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Sherif S. Farag, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that the addition of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; CD26) inhibitor sitagliptin to tacrolimus and sirolimus prophylaxis resulted in a low rate of acute graft-vs-host disease amon...

Breast Cancer

Researchers Develop Prognostic Model to Guide Systemic Therapy for Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Prat et al have developed a prognostic risk score model—HER2DX—that can be used to identify patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer who might be candidates for escalated or de-escalated systemic treatment. As stated by the investigators, “In early...

Gynecologic Cancers

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy vs Lymphadenectomy for Staging of Intermediate- and High-Grade Endometrial Cancers

Matthew Stenger  /  December 10, 2020

In a Canadian prospective cohort study (SENTOR) reported in JAMA Surgery, Cusimano et al found that sentinel lymph node biopsy showed “acceptable diagnostic accuracy” compared with lymphadenectomy in detecting nodal metastatic disease in patients with intermediate- and high-grade endometrial cancers...

Bladder Cancer

Mitomycin Gel for Low-Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  May 25, 2020

On April 15, 2020, mitomycin gel was approved for the treatment of adult patients with low-grade upper tract urothelial cancer.1,2 Mitomycin gel is for pyelocalyceal use alone and not for intravenous, topical, or oral administration. Supporting Efficacy Data Approval was based on findings in the o...

Breast Cancer

Recurrence Risk in Black and White Women With Borderline Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  January 25, 2020

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Halei C. Benefield, PhD, and colleagues found that black women with borderline estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer had significantly poorer disease-free interval compared with those with ER-positive disease, irrespective ...

Breast Cancer

First-Line Atezolizumab Plus Nab-paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Second Overall Survival Interim Analysis

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  January 25, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Peter Schmid, MD, and colleagues, the prespecified second interim analysis of overall survival in the phase III IMpassion130 trial has shown no overall survival benefit with the addition of atezolizumab to nab-paclitaxel as first-line treatment of unresectable...

Bladder Cancer

TIVO-3: Third- or Fourth-Line Tivozanib vs Sorafenib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  January 25, 2020

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Brian I. Rini, MD, and colleagues, the phase III TIVO-3 trial has shown a statistically significant increase in progression-free survival with tivozanib vs sorafenib as a third- or fourth-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Study Details The open...

Prostate Cancer

Olaparib for Previously Treated, Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With DNA Repair Gene Aberrations

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  January 25, 2020

In the phase II TOPARP-B trial—reported by Joaquin Mateo, MD, in The Lancet Oncology—investigators found that olaparib showed good activity in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA damage response (DDR) gene aberrations who had received one or two prior taxane regimens. S...

Bladder Cancer

Does the Addition of Ramucirumab to Docetaxel Improve Overall Survival in Previously Treated Urothelial Carcinoma?

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  December 25, 2019

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Daniel P. Petrylak, MD, and colleagues, the phase III RANGE trial has shown no significant improvement in overall survival with the addition of ramucirumab to docetaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma previously treated wit...

Prostate Cancer

Sequencing of Enzalutamide and Abiraterone Acetate in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  December 25, 2019

In a Canadian phase II crossover trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Kim N. Chi, MD, and colleagues found that time to second prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression from start of treatment was longer with crossover from abiraterone acetate/prednisone to enzalutamide vs the reverse sequence...

Breast Cancer

Swedish Study of Risk-Adapted Screening Starting Ages for Relatives of Patients With Breast Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  December 25, 2019

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Trasias Mukama, MPH, and colleagues identified risk-adapted screening starting ages for relatives of patients with breast cancer according to the number of affected first-degree and second-degree relatives and the age at diagnosis of affected relatives. The n...

Breast Cancer

Breast-Conserving Surgery and Partial-Breast Reirradiation in Patients With Ipsilateral Disease Recurrence

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  December 25, 2019

Findings from the phase II NRG Oncology/RTOG 1014 trial, reported in JAMA Oncology by Douglas W. Arthur, MD, and colleagues showed that partial-breast reirradiation after second lumpectomy for recurrence of ipsilateral breast cancer following previous whole-breast irradiation was an effective trea...

Colorectal Cancer

ctDNA and Recurrence Risk After Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek Pasini.  /  December 10, 2019

In a cohort biomarker study reported in JAMA Oncology, Jeanne Tie, MD, and colleagues showed that the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)-positive status after surgery and chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence in patients with stage III colon cancer. Study Details Th...

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer Screening With Fecal Immunochemical Testing, Sigmoidoscopy, or Colonoscopy for Patients Aged 50 to 79

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek Pasini.  /  December 10, 2019

As reported in The British Medical Journal (BMJ) by Lise M. Helsingen, MD, PhD, and colleagues, a clinical practice guideline on colorectal cancer screening published as a BMJ Rapid Recommendations guideline indicates that previously unscreened individuals aged 50 to 79 years old with 15-year colore...

Gynecologic Cancers

Nivolumab Plus Bevacizumab in Relapsed Ovarian Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek Pasini.  /  December 10, 2019

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Joyce F. Liu, MD, MPH, and colleagues found evidence of the activity of combined nivolumab and bevacizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer, with activity appearing to be greater in platinum-sensitive disease. Study Details In the trial, 38 women with relap...

Gynecologic Cancers

Thermal Ablation vs Cryotherapy or Loop Excision in Zambian Women Positive for Cervical Precancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek Pasini.  /  December 10, 2019

In the pilot phase of an ongoing randomized trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Partha Basu, MD, and colleagues found that thermal ablation and cryotherapy produced similar treatment success rates in Zambian women positive for cervical precancer on visual inspection with acetic acid. The inves...

Prostate Cancer

Acute Toxicity With Intensity-Modulated Fractionated Radiotherapy vs Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  November 10, 2019

In an analysis from the phase III PACE-B trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nicholas van As, MD, and colleagues found that shortened treatment courses with stereotactic body radiotherapy did not increase gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity vs intensity-modulated fractionated radio...

Prostate Cancer

Apalutamide Treatment for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Health-Related Quality of Life

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  November 10, 2019

In an analysis of the phase III TITAN trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Neeraj Agarwal, MD, and colleagues found that that treatment with apalatuamide was associated with preserved health-related quality of life, including pain and fatigue outcomes, in patients with metastatic castration-sens...

Gastroesophageal Cancer

Nivolumab vs Taxane Therapy in Refractory Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Pasini.  /  November 10, 2019

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Ken Kato, MD, and colleagues, the phase III ATTRACTION-3 trial conducted in predominantly Asian patients has shown a survival benefit with nivolumab vs paclitaxel or docetaxel in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who were refractory to ...

Immunotherapy

POLE/POLD1 Mutations and Outcomes With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  October 25, 2019

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Feng Wang, MD, PhD, and colleagues identified the frequency of mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) and delta 1 (POLD1) genes across cancer types and found that these mutations were associated with better survival outcomes among patients recei...

Immunotherapy

Prior Antibiotic Treatment and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  October 25, 2019

In a study presented in a brief report in JAMA Oncology, David J. Pinato, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that past—but not concurrent—use of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was associated with poorer treatment outcomes in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors for various cancers in rout...

Head and Neck Cancer

Addition of Induction Gemcitabine/Cisplatin to Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  October 25, 2019

In a Chinese phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Yuan Zhang, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that the addition of gemcitabine/cisplatin induction chemotherapy to standard platinum-based chemoradiotherapy improved recurrence-free survival vs chemoradiotherapy alone in locor...

Head and Neck Cancer

Swallowing-Related Quality of Life After Radiotherapy vs Surgery for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  October 25, 2019

In the phase II ORATOR trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Anthony Nichols, MD, and colleagues found a statistical but not clinically meaningful improvement in swallowing-related quality of life outcomes 1 year after treatment with radiotherapy vs transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection i...

Issues in Oncology
Geriatric Oncology

HIV-Positive Older Adults With Cancer and Worsened Disease Outcomes

Matthew Stenger  /  September 10, 2019

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Anna E. Coghill, PhD, MPH, and colleagues found that outcomes are often worse among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients aged 65 years or older with cancer vs HIV-negative patients with cancer, after adjustment for first courses of treatment. ...

Head and Neck Cancer

Combination CDK4/6 and EGFR Inhibition in Platinum- and Cetuximab-Resistant HPV-Unrelated Head and Neck Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  September 10, 2019

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Douglas Adkins, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib and the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab showed activity in patients with either platinum- or cetuximab-resistant human papillo...

Breast Cancer
Gynecologic Cancers
Genomics/Genetics

USPSTF Recommendation on Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  September 10, 2019

As reported in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended risk assessment and, if indicated, genetic counseling and testing for potentially harmful BRCA1/2 mutations in women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer or who have ancestr...

Immunotherapy
Skin Cancer

5-Year Follow-Up of KEYNOTE-006 Trial of Immunotherapy Regimens in Advanced Melanoma

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  August 25, 2019

In a post hoc 5-year follow-up of the KEYNOTE-006 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Caroline Robert, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that pembrolizumab maintained overall and progression-free survival benefits over ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. In the primary analysis from the ...

Immunotherapy
Skin Cancer
Kidney Cancer
Lung Cancer

Long-Term Follow-up of Patients With Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, and Lung Cancer Receiving Nivolumab

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  August 25, 2019

As reported by Suzanne L. Topalian, MD, and colleagues in JAMA Oncology, long-term follow up of patients from a phase I expansion cohort study indicated 5-year overall survival rates of 34.2%, 27.7%, and 15.6% among patients who received nivolumab monotherapy for advanced melanoma, renal cell carc...

Gynecologic Cancers

Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy Alone in High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  August 25, 2019

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Stephanie de Boer, MD, and colleagues, a post hoc updated survival analysis of the phase III PORTEC-3 trial has shown a significant overall survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in women with high-risk endometrial cancer. A benefit...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

Addition of IDO1 Inhibitor to Immunotherapy in Melanoma

Matthew Stenger  /  August 10, 2019

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Georgina V. Long, PhD, and colleagues, the phase III ECHO-301/KEYNOTE-252 trial showed no improvement in progression-free or overall survival with the addition of the IDO1 inhibitor epacadostat to pembrolizumab in unresectable stage III or stage IV melanoma. ...

Lymphoma

Early Trial of IPH4102 in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Matthew Stenger  /  August 10, 2019

In a phase I trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Martine Bagot, MD, and colleagues found that IPH4102—a first-in-class monoclonal antibody targeting KIR3DL2—was safe and showed activity in patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, particularly those with Sézary syndrome. KIR...

Colorectal Cancer

Regorafenib Dose-Escalation Strategy vs Standard Dosing in Colorectal Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  August 10, 2019

In the phase II ReDOS trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD, and colleagues found that a regorafenib dose-escalation strategy compared favorably with standard dosing in regard to toxicity profile and activity in patients with refractory advanced colorectal cancer.  Study D...

Immunotherapy
Symptom Management

Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Rechallenge After Immune-Related Adverse Events

Matthew Stenger  /  August 10, 2019

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Olivier Lambotte, MD, PhD, found that rechallenge with an immune checkpoint inhibitor after occurrence of immune-related adverse events was associated with occurrence of an immune-related adverse event in approximately half of patients, with no increase in sever...

Hematologic Malignancies
Leukemia

Active Regimen for High-Risk and Older Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  July 25, 2019

In a single-center phase II trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Nitin Jain, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax was highly active in previously untreated high-risk and older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).  In the study, 8...

CNS Cancers

Activity of a MEK 1/2 Inhibitor in Select Pediatric Brain Cancers

Matthew Stenger and compiled by Liz Janetschek.  /  July 25, 2019

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jason Fangusaro, MD, and colleagues found that the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib was active in pediatric patients with recurrent, refractory, or progressive pilocytic astrocytoma with common BRAF aberrations and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-ass...

Gastroesophageal Cancer
Gastrointestinal Cancer

Trifluridine/Tipiracil in Recurrent, Metastatic Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

Matthew Stenger  /  July 10, 2019

In the Clinic provides overviews of novel hematology and oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms of action, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs. On February 22, trifluridine/tipiracil tab...

Gynecologic Cancers

Addition of Antiangiogenic Agent to First-Line Carboplatin/Paclitaxel in Ovarian Cancer

Matthew Stenger  /  July 10, 2019

In a phase III trial (TRINOVA-3/ENGOT-ov2/GOG- 3001) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ignace Vergote, PhD, and colleagues found that addition of the antiangiogenic agent trebananib to carboplatin/ paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival in first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer...

Multiple Myeloma

Effect of Bortezomib/Dexamethasone Plus Pomalidomide on Progression-Free Survival in Multiple Myeloma Pretreated With Lenalidomide

Matthew Stenger  /  July 10, 2019

In the phase III OPTIMISMM trial, reported by Paul G. Richardson, MD, and colleagues in The Lancet Oncology, researchers found that the addition of pomalidomide to bortezomib/dexamethasone improved progression-free survival in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma previously treated with lenalidom...

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