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geriatric oncology

Cancer vs Non–Cancer-Related Deaths Among Older Patients Selected for Surgical Treatment

In a Canadian population-based cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Chesney et al found that the 5-year rate of cancer-related deaths exceeded that of non–cancer-related deaths among patients aged 70 or older undergoing surgery for cancer.    Study Details The study used data from ICES (formerly...

prostate cancer
covid-19

Prostate Cancer Surgery Rates in Black vs White Men With Nonmetastatic Disease During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Bernstein et al found that prostatectomy rates during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic were dramatically lower among Black men vs White men with previously untreated nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Study Details The study involved...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

Global Estimates of New Cancers Attributable to Alcohol Use in 2020

In a population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Rumgay et al provided estimates of the global incidence of new cancers attributable to alcohol consumption, including the estimate that 4.1% of all new cases in 2020 were related to alcohol use. Study Details   In the study, population...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Adjuvant Pembrolizumab Improves Distant Metastasis–Free Survival in Resected High-Risk Stage III Melanoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Alexander M.M. Eggermont, MD, of Princess Máxima Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands, and colleagues, the pivotal phase III EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial has shown significant improvement in the secondary endpoint of distant metastasis–free survival, as well as...

lung cancer

Lorlatinib for Metastatic ALK-Positive NSCLC

On March 3, 2021, lorlatinib was granted regular approval for treatment of patients with metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ALK-positive tumors as detected by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved test.1,2 The FDA simultaneously approved the Ventana ALK (D5F3) CDx Assay ...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Pembrolizumab Combined With Chemotherapy for Advanced Esophageal or Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

On March 22, 2021, pembrolizumab was approved for use in combination with platinum- and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for patients with metastatic or locally advanced esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (tumors with epicenter 1 to 5 cm above the gastroesophageal junction) carcinoma who...

kidney cancer

Tivozanib for Relapsed or Refractory Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

On March 10, 2021, the VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor tivozanib was approved for treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory advanced renal cell carcinoma following at least two prior systemic therapies.1,2 Supporting Efficacy Data Approval was based on findings in the open-label, phase III...

gynecologic cancers
immunotherapy

Dostarlimab-gxly for Mismatch Repair–Deficient Recurrent or Advanced Endometrial Cancer

On April 22, 2021, the PD-1 inhibitor dostarlimab-gxly was granted accelerated approval for treatment of adults with mismatch repair–deficient recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer, as determined by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved test, that has progressed on or following a...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel for Relapsed or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma

On March 5, 2021, the CD19-directed genetically modified autologous T-cell immunotherapy axicabtagene ciloleucel was granted accelerated approval for treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy.1,2 Axicabtagene ciloleucel is...

hematologic malignancies

Avapritinib for Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis

On June 16, 2021, avapritinib was approved for the treatment of adult patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis, including patients with aggressive systemic mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematological neoplasm, and mast cell leukemia.1,2 Avapritinib is not recommended...

lymphoma

Dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε Inhibitor Umbralisib in Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Nathan H. Fowler, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, a phase IIb trial (UNITY-NHL) has shown that the dual PI3Kδ/casein kinase (CK)1ε inhibitor umbralisib produced durable responses in patients with relapsed...

gynecologic cancers

Addition of Adavosertib to Gemcitabine Improves Outcomes in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet, Stephanie Lheureux, MD, of Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, and colleagues, found that the addition of the oral Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib to gemcitabine significantly improved progression-free and overall survival in...

prostate cancer

Nomograms for Predicting Outcomes With LuPSMA Therapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a retrospective study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Gafita et al developed nomograms for predicting overall survival and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival outcomes in men receiving lutetium-177–PSMA (LuPSMA) treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of Ipilimumab to Nivolumab in Previously Treated, Immunotherapy-Naive Patients With Stage IV Squamous NSCLC

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Scott N. Gettinger, MD, and colleagues, the phase III Lung Cancer Master Protocol S1400I trial showed no improvement in overall survival with the addition of ipilimumab to nivolumab in previously treated, immune checkpoint inhibitor–naive patients with stage IV...

breast cancer

Outcomes in Patients With HER2-Low–Positive Breast Cancer Participating in Neoadjuvant Clinical Trials

In a pooled analysis of individual patient data from breast cancer neoadjuvant clinical trials reported in The Lancet Oncology, Carsten Denkert, MD, and colleagues found that pathologic complete response and survival rates for patients with HER2-low–positive vs HER2-zero tumors differed according...

hematologic malignancies
symptom management

Ruxolitinib for Glucocorticoid-Refractory or -Dependent Chronic Graft-vs-Host Disease After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

In the phase III REACH3 trial, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Robert Zeiser, MD, and colleagues found that ruxolitinib produced a significantly higher overall response rate vs investigator-selected control treatments in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic ...

breast cancer

Is There a Disease-Free Survival Benefit With Adjuvant Celecoxib in HER2-Negative Breast Cancer?

In the phase III REACT trial reported in JAMA Oncology, R. Charles Coombes, MD, PhD, and colleagues found no disease-free survival benefit with the addition of 2 years of adjuvant celecoxib vs placebo to conventional adjuvant treatment in patients with HER2-negative breast cancer. Study Details...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Interleukin-2 Pathway Agonist Bempegaldesleukin Plus Nivolumab in the First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma

In the phase II cohort of a phase I/II trial (PIVOT-02) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Adi Diab, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of the interleukin-2 pathway agonist bempegaldesleukin and nivolumab produced high response rates and extended progression-free survival in...

prostate cancer

Addition of AKT Inhibitor Ipatasertib to Abiraterone/Prednisolone in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With PTEN Loss

In the phase III IPATential150 trial reported in The Lancet, Christopher Sweeney, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of the AKT inhibitor ipatasertib to abiraterone and prednisolone produced a significant improvement in progression-free survival among patients with metastatic...

breast cancer

Breast-Conserving Surgery Plus Radiotherapy May Yield Better Survival Than Mastectomy With or Without Radiotherapy

In a Swedish cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, de Boniface et al found that breast-conserving surgery plus radiation therapy for women with breast cancer was associated with better survival vs mastectomy with or without radiotherapy in analysis adjusting for comorbidities and socioeconomic...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Addition of Prime-Boost Vaccination Regimen to Atezolizumab in Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Expressing NY-ESO-1

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sant P. Chawla, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen CMB305 to atezolizumab did not improve survival outcomes in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas expressing the...

prostate cancer

MRI-Targeted vs Standard Biopsy for Prostate Cancer Screening in Men With Elevated PSA Levels

In a Swedish population-based noninferiority trial (STHLM3-MRI) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Eklund et al found magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy was noninferior to standard biopsy in detecting clinically significant cancers in men with elevated prostate-specific...

breast cancer
survivorship

Pregnancy Outcomes and Maternal Complications Among Survivors of Breast Cancer

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Matteo Lambertini, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that breast cancer survivors were less likely to have subsequent pregnancy vs the general population and more likely to have preterm birth. However, no reduction...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Adding Perioperative Durvalumab to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage IIIA NSCLC

In a Swiss phase II trial (SAKK 16/14) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rothschild et al found that the addition of perioperative durvalumab to neoadjuvant cisplatin/docetaxel resulted in a high major pathologic response rate and an event-free survival rate of 73% in patients with...

lung cancer
genomics/genetics

Consensus Statement From IASLC on Liquid Biopsy for Advanced NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology by Christian Rolfo, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has issued a consensus statement on the use of liquid biopsy in advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Select recommendations are...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Real-World Survival Outcomes With Pertuzumab Plus T-DM1 for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

In a Canadian population-based retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ethier et al identified real-world survival outcomes among women receiving pertuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for stage IV HER2-positive breast cancer, observing that outcomes appeared to be poorer than...

gastrointestinal cancer

KIT Inhibitor Combination Shows Efficacy in Refractory GIST

In a phase Ib/IIa trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Wagner et al found that the combination of a type I KIT inhibitor, PLX9486, with the type II inhibitor sunitinib produced clinical benefit and improved progression-free survival rates in patients with refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumors...

issues in oncology

Risk of Bleeding Complications During Central Venous Catheter Placement in Pediatric Patients With Cancer

In a retrospective cohort study reported in a research letter in JAMA Surgery, Stokes et al found that risk of minor bleeding events during central venous catheter placement in pediatric patients with cancer was significantly increased among those with platelet counts < 50 × 103/μL at the time...

prostate cancer

Addition of Docetaxel to Radiotherapy and ADT in Nonmetastatic Unfavorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Anthony V. D’Amico, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that the addition of docetaxel to radiotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) did not improve overall survival in nonmetastatic, unfavorable-risk prostate cancer. However,...

pancreatic cancer
genomics/genetics

Prevalence of Homologous Recombination Deficiency in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Casolino et al identified the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) genes in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and found that the reported prevalence of HRD was higher with...

pancreatic cancer

SBRT Plus Pembrolizumab/Trametinib vs Gemcitabine in Locally Recurrent Resected Pancreatic Cancer

In a Chinese phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Zhu et al found that stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plus pembrolizumab and trametinib produced a modest—but statistically significant—overall survival benefit vs SBRT plus gemcitabine in patients with locally recurrent resected...

lung cancer

Do Neuronal Autoantibodies Contribute to Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Lung Cancer?

In a German prospective cross-sectional study reported in JAMA Oncology, Bartels et al found that a high proportion of patients with lung cancer had neuronal antibodies that may be associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment. As stated by the investigators, “Paraneoplastic neurological...

kidney cancer

Oral Anticancer Agent Use in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

In a population-based cohort study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Stephanie B. Wheeler, PhD, and colleagues found a low rate of oral anticancer agent use within 12 months after detection of metastatic disease in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Study Details The study used a novel, North...

prostate cancer

Identification of Prognostic Transcriptional Profile in CTCs With Multiplex Liquid Biopsy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sperger et al found that use of a novel liquid biopsy technology resulted in identification of a prognostic transcriptional profile in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The profile was prognostic...

leukemia

Calaspargase Pegol vs Pegaspargase in Pediatric ALL

In a phase III trial (DFCI 11-001) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vrooman et al found that the novel pegylated asparaginase formulation calaspargase pegol (calaspargase) given every 3 weeks was associated with similar serum asparaginase activity nadir values, survival outcomes, and...

colorectal cancer
survivorship

Quality of Life With General Practitioner– vs Surgeon-Led Colon Cancer Survivorship Care

In a 1-year interim analysis of a Dutch study (I CARE) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Vos et al found no clinically meaningful difference in changes in quality of life from baseline among patients with colon cancer with general practitioner– vs surgeon-led survivorship care. In addition,...

thyroid cancer

Cabozantinib in Previously Treated, Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: COSMIC-311

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Marcia S. Brose, MD, and colleagues, the phase III COSMIC-311 trial has shown that cabozantinib produced a numerically higher objective response rate and significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with previously treated,...

hematologic malignancies

Evaluation of Two Doses of Imetelstat in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myelofibrosis After JAK Inhibitor Treatment

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, John Mascarenhas, MD, and colleagues found that treatment with the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat at a dose of 9.4 mg/kg produced clinical benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory myelofibrosis after Janus-associated kinase...

solid tumors
genomics/genetics

Genomic Characteristics of Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors

In an analysis from an international consortium reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shern et al identified genomic characteristics and associated outcomes in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma. Among the findings were that MYOD1 and TP53 mutations were associated with poorer outcomes. As stated...

hematologic malignancies

Risk of Atrial Fibrillation After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Association With Poor Outcomes

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ellen K. Chang, MD, of the Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, and colleagues found that atrial fibrillation occurs in a substantial proportion of patients who have undergone allogeneic...

bladder cancer

Sacituzumab Govitecan-hziy in Urothelial Carcinoma Progressing After Platinum-Based Chemotherapy and Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

In a cohort of the phase II TROPHY-U-01 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Scott T. Tagawa, MD, MS, of Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, and colleagues, found that the antibody-drug conjugate sacituzumab govitecan-hziy produced durable responses in patients with metastatic...

bladder cancer

EV-301 Trial: Enfortumab Vedotin-ejfv Improves Overall Survival vs Chemotherapy in Previously Treated Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Thomas Powles, MD, of Barts Cancer Centre, Queen Mary University of London, and colleagues, a prespecified interim analysis of the phase III EV-301 trial has shown improved overall survival with the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab...

global cancer care

Postoperative Mortality and Complications After Cancer Surgery in High- vs Low- or Middle-Income Countries

In a prospective cohort study reported in The Lancet, the GlobalSurg Collaborative found that 30-day mortality after surgery for colorectal and gastric cancers, but not breast cancer, was higher in low- or middle-income countries vs high-income countries.1 Among all patients, mortality rates...

breast cancer
genomics/genetics

Disease Risk Associated With Protein-Truncating and Rare Missense Variants in Breast Cancer Risk Genes

In a study reported in TheNew England Journal of Medicine, Leila Dorling, PhD, of the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, and colleagues in the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC),...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

Nivolumab in Resected Esophageal or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

On May 20, 2021, nivolumab was approved for adjuvant treatment of patients with completely resected esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer with residual pathologic disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.1,2 Supporting Efficacy Data Approval was based on findings from the...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

BCMA-Directed CAR T-Cell Therapy Ciltacabtagene Autoleucel in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase Ib/II CARTITUDE-1 trial reported in The Lancet, Jesus G. Berdeja, MD, and colleagues found that ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel), a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy with two B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeting single-domain antibodies, produced a high rate of...

breast cancer

Is Chemotherapy Associated With Complications or Poorer Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Immediate Breast Reconstruction?

In a cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Hart et al found that treatment with either neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with an increased risk of complications or poorer patient-reported outcomes in women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer with immediate breast...

lymphoma
survivorship

Parenthood Status and Use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Younger Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

In a Danish population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Øvlisen et al found that parenthood rates in younger Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who did not experience early relapse were similar to those in the general population, but that use of assisted reproductive techniques...

hepatobiliary cancer

Donafenib May Improve Survival vs Sorafenib in First-Line Treatment of Unresectable or Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a Chinese phase II/III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Qin et al found that donafenib, a multikinase inhibitor and deuterated sorafenib derivative, improved overall survival vs sorafenib in the first-line treatment of unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. As...

leukemia

Arsenic Plus All-Trans Retinoic Acid for Pediatric Patients With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

In a Chinese study (CCLG-APL2016) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Zheng et al found that the combination of arsenic with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was associated with good survival outcomes in pediatric patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Study Details The multicenter...

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