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gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of First-Line Nivolumab to Chemotherapy in Advanced Gastric Cancers: CheckMate 649

As reported in The Lancet by Yelena Y. Janjigian, MD, and colleagues, the phase III CheckMate 649 trial has shown that the addition of first-line nivolumab to chemotherapy resulted in improved overall and progression-free survival among patients with advanced HER2-negative gastric, gastroesophageal ...

colorectal cancer
genomics/genetics

Retrospective Study Explores Variation in Colorectal Cancer Risk in Families With Lynch Syndrome

In a retrospective cohort study reported by Win et al in The Lancet Oncology, researchers in the International Mismatch Repair Consortium found marked variation in the risk of colorectal cancer in families with Lynch syndrome carrying the same pathogenic variant in DNA mismatch repair genes. The...

breast cancer
genomics/genetics

Effect of Polygenic Risk Score on Estimated Breast Cancer Risk Among Carriers of Pathogenic Variants in Predisposition Genes

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gao et al found that use of a polygenic risk score (PRS) modified the estimated risk of breast cancer among both carriers and noncarriers of established pathogenic variants in breast cancer predisposition genes. Study Details The study...

covid-19

All-Cause Mortality in COVID-19–Positive and COVID-19–Negative Patients With Cancer

In a large cohort study reported by Sharafeldin et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, researchers from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) found that COVID-19–positive vs –negative status was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality at 1 year among patients with...

leukemia
genomics/genetics

Addition of Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin to Conventional Background Chemotherapy in Pediatric Patients With KMT2A-Rearranged AML

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Pollard et al, a subgroup of pediatric patients with KMT2A-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the phase III Children’s Oncology Group AAML0531 trial had improved outcomes with the addition of the CD33-targeting agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin...

myelodysplastic syndromes

Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic HCT Based on Donor Availability in Older Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nakamura et al found that use of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in older patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with an available matched donor improved overall survival vs...

lung cancer

Trilaciclib to Reduce Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Marrow Suppression in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

On February 12, 2021, the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor trilaciclib was approved for use to decrease the incidence of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in adult patients when administered prior to a platinum/etoposide–containing regimen or topotecan-containing regimen for...

colorectal cancer
global cancer care

Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in European Countries

In a European population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Cardoso et al found that colorectal cancer incidence and mortality declined more in European countries with long-standing colonoscopy or fecal test screening programs since the year 2000 compared to countries with more recently...

prostate cancer

All-Cause Mortality Risk With Adjuvant vs Early Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy

In a retrospective cohort study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tilki et al found that adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with reduced risk for all-cause mortality vs early salvage radiotherapy among men at high risk for disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. As stated...

breast cancer

Adjuvant Platinum vs Capecitabine in Patients With Basal Subtype Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Residual Disease After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and during the 2021 ASCO Annual Meeting by Ingrid A. Mayer, MD, and colleagues, the phase III ECOG-ACRIN EA1131 trial investigated the use of adjuvant platinum vs capecitabine in patients with basal subtype triple-negative breast cancer and residual...

leukemia

Venetoclax Plus FLAG-IDA Induction and Consolidation for AML

In a single-institution phase I/II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Courtney D. DiNardo, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of venetoclax with FLAG-IDA (fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin) in induction and consolidation...

lung cancer
genomics/genetics

Pralsetinib in Advanced RET Fusion–Positive NSCLC: ARROW Trial

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Justin F. Gainor, MD, and colleagues, an interim analysis of the phase I/II ARROW trial has shown that the oral RET inhibitor pralsetinib produced high response rates in previously treated and treatment-naive patients with advanced RET fusion–positive non–small ...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Adjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine vs Paclitaxel/Trastuzumab in Stage I HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

In the phase II ATEMPT trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sara M. Tolaney, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that adjuvant trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) resulted in “excellent” invasive disease–free survival but did not reduce clinically relevant toxicity compared with...

gastroesophageal cancer

PET Response–Adapted Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Karyn A. Goodman, MD, and colleagues, mature results of the phase II CALGB 80803/Alliance trial indicated that treatment guided by early positron-emission tomography (PET) assessment of response to induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved...

breast cancer
lung cancer
skin cancer
genomics/genetics

Real-World Survival Outcomes With Targeted Therapy for Intracranial Metastatic Disease

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Erickson et al found that real-world use of targeted therapy after diagnosis of intracranial metastatic disease was associated with improved overall survival vs no use of targeted therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer,...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

Patient-Reported Outcomes From the IMbrave150 Trial in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In an analysis from the phase III IMbrave150 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Peter R. Galle, MD, and colleagues found that patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab had better patient-reported outcomes vs those receiving sorafenib for advanced unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular ...

breast cancer
survivorship

Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Model for Childhood Cancer Survivors Who Received Chest Radiation

In an analysis from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and the Dutch Hodgkin Late Effects and LATER cohorts reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Moskowitz et al developed a model for predicting the risk of breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors treated with chest...

lung cancer
genomics/genetics

Global Registry Analysis of NRG1 Fusion–Positive Lung Cancer

In an analysis from the global eNRGy1 registry for NRG1 fusion–positive lung cancers reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Alexander Drilon, MD, and colleagues found greater than expected heterogeneity in characteristics of disease. Additionally, patients had poor responses to cytotoxic,...

covid-19
global cancer care

Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Delivery of Oncology Services in India

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ranganathan et al quantified the enormous impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delivery of cancer services in India. Study Details The study involved data from 41 cancer centers across the nation. The delivery of oncology services between March 1 and May...

lymphoma

Addition of Copanlisib to Rituximab Improves Progression-Free Survival in Relapsed Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Matthew J. Matasar, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase III CHRONOS-3 trial has shown that the addition of the pan-class I PI3K inhibitor copanlisib to rituximab significantly improved progression-free survival vs rituximab ...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Nivolumab/Ipilimumab Improves Overall Survival vs Chemotherapy in First-Line Treatment for Unresectable Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

As reported in The Lancet by Paul Baas, MD, of The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, and colleagues, a prespecified interim analysis in the phase III CheckMate 743 trial has shown improved overall survival with first-line nivolumab/ipilimumab vs platinum-based chemotherapy in unresectable...

solid tumors
immunotherapy
colorectal cancer

Is Tumor Mutational Burden Predictive of Survival Outcomes in Solid Tumors Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?

In a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Benoit Rousseau, MD, PhD, and Michael B. Foote, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), and colleagues presented evidence that a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) threshold of 10 alone may not be sufficient to predict...

gynecologic cancers

Tisotumab Vedotin in Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

In a phase II study (innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robert L. Coleman, MD, and colleagues found that the antibody-drug conjugate tisotumab vedotin produced durable responses in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. In the...

head and neck cancer

Lobaplatin- vs Cisplatin-Based Induction and Chemoradiotherapy in Previously Untreated Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

In a Chinese phase III trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Xing Lv, MD, and colleagues found noninferior progression-free survival with induction therapy with the third-generation platinum lobaplatin/fluorouracil (5-FU) vs cisplatin/5-FU, followed by lobaplatin- vs cisplatin-based...

gastroesophageal cancer

Adjuvant Nivolumab Improves Disease-Free Survival vs Placebo in Resected Esophageal or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Ronan J. Kelly, MB BCh, MBA, of The Charles A. -Sammons Cancer Center at Baylor University Medical Center, and colleagues, an interim analysis of the phase III CheckMate 577 trial has shown a significant improvement in disease-free survival...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

APOLLO Trial: Addition of Subcutaneous Daratumumab to Pomalidomide/Dexamethasone in Previously Treated Patients With Multiple Myeloma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Meletios A. Dimopoulos, MD, and colleagues, the phase III APOLLO trial has shown significantly improved progression-free survival with the addition of subcutaneous daratumumab to pomalidomide/dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma....

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-361: First-Line Pembrolizumab With or Without Chemotherapy vs Chemotherapy Alone in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Thomas Powles, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the phase III KEYNOTE-361 trial has shown no significant improvement in progression-free or overall survival with first-line pembrolizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced...

issues in oncology
bladder cancer
lung cancer
skin cancer

Inclusion of Patients With Brain Metastases in Phase III Trials in Advanced Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, and Melanoma

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Corbett et al found that the majority of phase III trials investigating systemic therapy in patients with advanced lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma over the past 20 years have excluded or restricted enrollment of those with brain...

issues in oncology

New Web-Based Lesion Selection Tool May Improve Coordination, Performance, and Management of Biopsy Specimens

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Immunotherapy and Precision Oncology, Xu et al found that the use of a Web-based lesion selection tool (LST) developed by the research team improved consistency in lesion selection for sequential biopsy. In addition, the tool improved the...

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

CheckMate 274: Adjuvant Nivolumab in High-Risk Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Dean F. Bajorin, MD, and colleagues, an interim analysis of the phase III CheckMate 274 trial has shown improved disease-free survival with adjuvant nivolumab vs placebo among all patients with high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who...

lung cancer

Effect of Time to Surgery on Recurrence and Survival in Clinical Stage I NSCLC

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Heiden et al found that increased time from preoperative diagnostic computed tomography imaging and surgical treatment was associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence and poorer overall survival in patients with clinical...

supportive care
issues in oncology

Lay Health Worker–Led Intervention May Improve Care for Low-Income and Minority Patients With Cancer

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Manali I. Patel, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that a lay health worker­–led intervention was associated with improved documentation of goals of care, increased clinical trial participation, and increased use of palliative care in a population of...

gynecologic cancers

HIPEC With Carboplatin for Platinum-Sensitive Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: Safety and Outcomes

In an MSK Team Ovary–led phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Zivanovic et al found that use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with carboplatin during secondary cytoreduction followed by chemotherapy did not improve 24-month progression-free survival in...

hematologic malignancies
symptom management

Third-Party BK Virus–Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Therapy for BK Virus–Associated Hemorrhagic Cystitis After Stem Cell Transplant

In a single-institution phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Olson et al found that high rates of response were achieved with third-party BK virus–specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte therapy (BKV-CTL) in patients with BK virus–associated hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker and Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Pertuzumab/Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Roisin M. Connolly, MD, and colleagues, updated results of the phase II TBCRC026 trial indicate an association of early F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) maximum standardized uptake value...

issues in oncology

Predictors of Emergency Department Visits After a New Diagnosis of Cancer

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Hong et al found that prior frequent emergency department use was the strongest predictor of postdiagnosis emergency department visits among patients with a new diagnosis of cancer. Study Details The study involved data from adults...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

Real-World Survival Outcomes With Various Treatment Regimens for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

In a real-world retrospective propensity-matched cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Chakiryan et al found that both first-line immunotherapy and combined treatment with targeted therapy plus immunotherapy were associated with improved overall survival vs targeted therapy alone in patients...

breast cancer
genomics/genetics

Are There Differences in the Prevalence of Germline Pathogenic Variants in Susceptibility Genes in Black vs White Women With Breast Cancer?

In a population-based study reported in JAMA Oncology, Susan M. Domchek, MD, and colleagues found “no clinically meaningful differences” in the prevalence of germline pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer susceptibility genes between Black and non-Hispanic White women with breast...

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in BCG-Unresponsive High-Risk Non–Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: KEYNOTE-057

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Arjun V. Balar, MD, and colleagues, the phase II KEYNOTE-057 trial showed that pembrolizumab produced enduring responses in a cohort of patients with high-risk non–muscle invasive bladder cancer unresponsive to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) who were ineligible ...

breast cancer

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy De-escalation Using F-18 FDG-PET Response–Based Strategy in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

In the European phase II PHERGain study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Pérez-García et al found that an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (F-18 FDG-PET) response–based strategy may be able to identify patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer who may benefit from...

breast cancer

Three-Year Outcomes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Anthracycline Plus Dual HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

In a secondary analysis of the Dutch phase III TRAIN-2 trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Anna van der Voort, MD, and colleagues found similar 3-year event-free and overall survival in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy with vs without an anthracycline plus dual...

bladder cancer
immunotherapy

Does the Addition of Bevacizumab to Gemcitabine/Cisplatin for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Improve Survival?

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Jonathan E. Rosenberg, MD, and colleagues, the phase III CALGB 90601/Alliance trial has shown no improvement in overall survival with the addition of bevacizumab to gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma.  Study...

solid tumors

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastases

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Chen et al found that stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases was effective and safe, with outcomes comparable to those observed with stereotactic radiosurgery for nonbrainstem brain metastases. Study Details A...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Neoadjuvant Durvalumab With vs Without Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Early-Stage NSCLC

In a single-center phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nasser K. Altorki, MD, and colleagues found that neoadjuvant durvalumab plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) resulted in a markedly higher major pathologic response rate vs durvalumab alone in patients with early-stage...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Lisocabtagene Maraleucel for Relapsed or Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma

On February 5, 2021, lisocabtagene maraleucel was approved for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified (including DLBCL arising from...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Cemiplimab-rwlc for Patients With Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma After Hedgehog Inhibitor Therapy

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Stratigos et al, findings in a subgroup of a phase II trial have shown that the PD-1 antibody cemiplimab-rwlc produces enduring responses in patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma who had progressive disease on or intolerance to prior hedgehog...

immunotherapy

Use of Systemic Therapy at the End of Life in Patients With Cancer: Effect of Approval of Immunotherapies

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Khaki et al found that although the use of anticancer systemic therapy during the last 30 days of life in patients with cancer has decreased overall since the first approval of a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, the use of PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors...

colorectal cancer
geriatric oncology

Effect of Lower Endoscopy on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Individuals Older Than 75

In a prospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ma et al found that lower endoscopy colorectal cancer screening in individuals older than age 75 was associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, although no colorectal cancer mortality benefit was observed in those with ...

cns cancers

Adjuvant and Concurrent Temozolomide in 1p/19q Non-Codeleted Anaplastic Glioma: Survival Benefit Analysis

In the second interim analysis of the phase III CATNON trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Martin J. van den Bent, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that adjuvant temozolomide—but not temozolomide concurrent with radiotherapy—was associated with an overall survival benefit in patients with newly...

colorectal cancer

Perioperative Systemic Therapy for Patients With Resectable Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases

In the phase II portion of a Dutch phase II/III trial (CAIRO6) reported in JAMA Surgery, Rovers et al found that the addition of perioperative systemic therapy to cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) was feasible and safe for the treatment of patients with ...

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