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lung cancer

5-Year Survival Outcomes With Consolidation Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy in Unresectable Stage III NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by David R. Spigel, MD, of Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, and colleagues, long-term follow-up of the phase III PACIFIC trial has shown maintained progression-free and overall survival benefits with consolidation durvalumab (a...

gastroesophageal cancer
immunotherapy

Overall Survival Benefit With Nivolumab Plus Chemotherapy or Ipilimumab vs Chemotherapy Alone in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Yuichiro Doki, MD, of Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, and colleagues, the phase III CheckMate 648 trial has shown improved overall survival with nivolumab combined with chemotherapy or ipilimumab vs chemotherapy alone in...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab for MSI-H/dMMR Advanced Endometrial Carcinoma

On March 21, 2022, pembrolizumab was approved for patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma that is microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair–deficient (dMMR), as determined by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved test, who have disease progression following prior...

lymphoma

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel for Second-Line Treatment of Large B-Cell Lymphoma

On April 1, 2022, axicabtagene ciloleucel was approved for adults with large B-cell lymphoma that is refractory to first-line chemoimmunotherapy or relapses within 12 months of first-line chemoimmunotherapy.1 It is not indicated for the treatment of patients with primary central nervous system...

breast cancer

[F-18]FES-PET Assessment of ER Status in Metastases From Newly Diagnosed Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer

In a subanalysis from the Dutch IMPACT-MBC study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, van Geel et al found that qualitative whole-body 16α-[fluorine F-18]fluoro-17β-estradiol positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ([F-18]FES-PET) was highly accurate in predicting estrogen...

prostate cancer

Does Treatment With 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Impact the Risk of Dying of Prostate Cancer Among Men Without a Prior Diagnosis of the Disease?

In a Swedish study reported in JAMA Oncology, Björnebo et al found that longer use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer mortality among men without a prior diagnosis of prostate cancer. As stated...

breast cancer

EMERALD Trial: Elacestrant vs Standard Endocrine Therapy in Previously Treated Patients With ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by François-Clément Bidard, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the phase III EMERALD trial has shown prolonged progression-free survival with the oral selective estrogen receptor (ER) degrader elacestrant vs standard endocrine therapy among patients with...

lung cancer

Tazemetostat for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory BAP1-Inactivated Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Zauderer et al found that the EZH2 inhibitor tazemetostat was active in patients with relapsed or refractory BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1)-inactivated malignant pleural mesothelioma. As noted by the investigators, high expression of EZH2 has...

covid-19

Mortality and Associated Factors Among Patients With Cancer vs No Cancer Infected With SARS–CoV-2

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Network Open, Khoury et al found that SARS­­–CoV-2 infection was associated with a higher risk of mortality among patients with cancer vs those without cancer. Risk vs those with no cancer was increased with younger age, and patients with...

breast cancer

Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using a Pegulicianine Fluorescence–Guided System

In the INSITE study reported in JAMA Surgery, E. Shelley Hwang, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that use of an intraoperative imaging agent with a pegulicianine fluorescence–guided system (pFGS) was effective in detecting residual cancer in the tumor bed of women with breast cancer undergoing...

breast cancer

Surgery Preference and Surgery Received in Women With DCIS

In an ancillary study of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group E4112 study reported in JAMA Network Open, Fazeli et al found that patient preference of type of surgery and type of surgery received for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was influenced by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...

breast cancer

Etirinotecan Pegol vs Physician’s Choice of Chemotherapy for Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Debu Tripathy, MD, and colleagues, the phase III ATTAIN trial has shown no difference in overall survival with etirinotecan pegol vs physician’s choice of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer and brain metastases. As noted by the investigators,...

hepatobiliary cancer

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Pump Chemotherapy vs Resection for Multifocal Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Franssen et al found little difference in median overall survival with hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) floxuridine chemotherapy vs resection in patients with multifocal intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details The study population consisted of ...

leukemia
multiple myeloma

Using a Transcriptomic Profile to Identify Plasma Cell Leukemia–Like Disease in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bruinink et al constructed a transcriptomic classifier for primary plasma cell leukemia (PCL) that identified high-risk PCL-like disease in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. As stated by the investigators, “Primary PCL is an...

pancreatic cancer

Early Postoperative Algorithm-Based vs Usual Care After Pancreatic Resection

In a Dutch nationwide trial reported by Smits et al in The Lancet, researchers in the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group found that algorithm-based early postsurgical care was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome of bleeding requiring invasive intervention, organ failure, and 90-day...

breast cancer

Do Electronic Health Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Other Health Outcomes in Patients With Breast Cancer?

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Singleton et al found that electronic health interventions were associated with improved quality of life, distress, self-efficacy, and fatigue vs usual care during or after treatment in patients with breast...

breast cancer

Guideline-Concordant Treatment of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa With Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Foerster et al, the African Breast Cancer–Disparities in Outcomes prospective cohort study has shown that a high proportion of women in sub-Saharan Africa with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer did not initiate, did not fully complete, or abandoned...

prostate cancer

Addition of ADT and Pelvic Lymph Node Radiotherapy to Salvage Prostate Bed Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

In a phase III trial (NRG Oncology/RTOG 0534 SPPORT) reported in The Lancet, Alan Pollack, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that both the addition of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and the addition of ADT and pelvic lymph node radiotherapy (PLNRT) to salvage prostate bed radiotherapy...

gynecologic cancers

Addition of Vistusertib to Anastrozole for Hormone Receptor–Positive Recurrent or Metastatic Endometrial Cancer

In a French phase I/II trial (VICTORIA) reported in JAMA Oncology, Heudel et al found that the addition of the mTOR inhibitor vistusertib to anastrozole improved outcomes in women with hormone receptor–positive recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer. As stated by the investigators, “Endometrial ...

cns cancers

Neurologic and Survival Outcomes After Awake Craniotomy for Glioblastoma

In an analysis from the GLIOMAP study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Gerritsen et al found that awake craniotomy for glioblastoma in eloquent brain areas (essential areas for carrying out basic neurological functions) was associated with reduced risk of neurologic deficits and improved survival...

colorectal cancer

Age at Initiation of Colorectal Cancer Screening and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among U.S. Women

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ma et al found that the initiation of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy screening in women younger than age 50 was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer vs no screening, and a greater absolute risk reduction compared with screening starting at age...

colorectal cancer

Watch-and-Wait Strategy for Organ Preservation in Patients Receiving Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Rectal Adenocarcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Garcia-Aguilar et al found that total neoadjuvant therapy followed by a watch-and-wait strategy vs total mesorectal excision based on response allowed for organ preservation in approximately half of patients with rectal...

hematologic malignancies
multiple myeloma
lymphoma
leukemia

Prevalence of Plasma Cell and Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Relatives of Probands With Light Chain Amyloidosis

In a study reported in the British Journal of Haematology, Staron et al found that the prevalence of plasma cell and lymphoproliferative disorders among blood relatives of probands with light chain (AL) amyloidosis was low overall and varied according to proband AL amyloidosis subtype. Despite...

colorectal cancer

3 vs 6 Months of Adjuvant Oxaliplatin- and Fluoropyrimidine-Based Therapy for Stage III Colon Cancer: Final Analysis

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Yoshino et al, the final analysis of survival and safety of the Japanese phase III ACHIEVE trial (part of the IDEA Collaboration) has shown no difference in disease-free or overall survival with 3 vs 6 months of adjuvant mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil,...

bladder cancer

Mortality and Perioperative Outcomes With Open vs Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer

In a Swedish population-based cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Mortezavi et al found that robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with reduced all-cause mortality, reduced high-grade complications, and improved perioperative outcomes vs open ...

lung cancer

Patients With NSCLC Brain Metastases Undergoing Neurosurgical Resection: Comparison of Treatment Regimens

In a German single-institution retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Network Open, Wasilewski et al found that treatment with immune checkpoint inhibition plus radiotherapy was associated with prolonged overall survival vs platinum-based chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in patients with brain...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Anti–CTLA-4 Antibody–Based Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Experiencing Disease Progression on Relatlimab/Nivolumab

In a study reported as a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Alexander M. Menzies, MD, and colleagues found that patients with metastatic melanoma who had progressive disease while receiving relatlimab/nivolumab had poor responses to anti–CTLA-4–based treatment. As noted...

immunotherapy
hematologic malignancies
leukemia
lymphoma

Rehospitalization and Emergency Department Visits After CAR T-Cell Therapy in Commercially Insured Patients With Cancer

In a single-institution study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Kenzik et al found substantial rates of rehospitalization and emergency department visits after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy among commercially insured patients with cancer. Study Details The study...

hepatobiliary cancer
pancreatic cancer
immunotherapy
genomics/genetics

Ipilimumab/Nivolumab in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic or Biliary Cancer and HRD Pathogenic Germline Variants

In a single-institution case series reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Terrero et al found that the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab was active in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic pancreatic or biliary cancer with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)...

colorectal cancer

Comparison of 2020 NICE Criteria for Preoperative Radiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Treated by Surgery Alone With Established MRI Prognostic Factors

In a retrospective cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Lord et al found that high-risk patients with rectal cancer treated with surgery alone who were more likely to benefit from preoperative radiotherapy were better selected using proven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prognostic...

gynecologic cancers

Trends in Hysterectomy-Corrected Uterine Cancer Mortality and Racial/Ethnic Differences

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Clarke et al found that hysterectomy-corrected rates of mortality from uterine corpus cancer overall and from nonendometrioid carcinomas have increased in recent years, with mortality rates being highest in Black women. The study involved data from the U.S....

breast cancer

Addition of Ibandronate to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Postmenopausal Women With ER-Positive Breast Cancer

In the Dutch phase III TEAM-IIB trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sonja B. Vliek, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of oral ibandronate to adjuvant endocrine therapy did not improve disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive stage I ...

gastroesophageal cancer
immunotherapy

Second-Line Tislelizumab vs Chemotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

In the phase III RATIONALE-302 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shen et al found that the anti–PD-1 antibody tislelizumab significantly improved overall survival vs chemotherapy in the second-line treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell...

lung cancer
genomics/genetics
immunotherapy

DESTINY-Lung01: T-DXd Shows Durable Activity in Previously Treated Metastatic HER2-Mutant NSCLC

In a phase II trial (DESTINY-Lung01) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Bob T. Li, MD, PhD, MPH, of the Thoracic Oncology and Early Drug Development Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and colleagues found that fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki (T-DXd) showed...

gynecologic cancers

Absence of FAM19A4/miR124-2 DNA Methylation and Clinical Regression of High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

In the Dutch CONCERVE study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kremer et al found that the absence of FAM19A4/miR124-2 DNA methylation was associated with a high rate of clinical regression of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia over 24 months among women treated with a...

lung cancer

Neoadjuvant Nivolumab and Platinum-Doublet Chemotherapy for Early NSCLC

On March 4, 2022, nivolumab was approved for use with platinum-doublet chemotherapy for resectable non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the neoadjuvant setting.1 The approval is the first for neoadjuvant therapy for early-stage NSCLC. Supporting Efficacy Data Approval was based on findings from...

head and neck cancer

Treatment De-escalation in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Using Primary Radiotherapy vs Transoral Surgery

As reported in JAMA Oncology by David Palma, MD, PhD, and colleagues, enrollment in the phase II ORATOR2 trial, which was designed to evaluate overall survival after de-escalated treatment with primary radiotherapy vs transoral surgery in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

Nivolumab and Salvage Nivolumab/Ipilimumab for Previously Untreated Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

In a phase II trial (Hoosier Cancer Research Network GU16-260) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Michael B. Atkins, MD, and colleagues found that nivolumab monotherapy was active in previously untreated patients with advanced clear cell renal carcinoma, particularly among those with...

genomics/genetics

Association of Pathogenic Variants in Hereditary Cancer Genes With Additional Cancers and Non-neoplastic Diseases

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Zeng et al found that germline pathogenic variants in 23 hereditary cancer genes were associated with an increased risk of cancers not previously associated with the variants, as well as an increased risk of multiple non-neoplastic diseases. Study Details The...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

MAIA Trial: Daratumumab Added to Lenalidomide Plus Dexamethasone Improves Overall Survival in Transplant-Ineligible Multiple Myeloma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Thierry Facon, MD, of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, and colleagues, a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival in the pivotal phase III MAIA trial has shown a significant benefit with the addition of daratumumab to...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Maintenance Daratumumab Prolongs Progression-Free Survival in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Philippe Moreau, MD, of the University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes, and colleagues, an interim analysis of part 2 of the phase III CASSIOPEIA trial has showed significantly prolonged progression-free survival with maintenance daratumumab vs observation...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Subcutaneous Daratumumab Added to Pomalidomide Plus Dexamethasone Improves Progression-Free Survival in Multiple Myeloma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Meletios A. Dimopoulos, MD, of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, and colleagues, the phase III APOLLO trial has shown significantly improved progression-free survival with the addition of subcutaneous (SC) daratumumab to oral...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

BCMA-Directed CAR T-Cell Therapy Ciltacabtagene Autoleucel in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase Ib/II CARTITUDE-1 trial reported in The Lancet, Jesus G. Berdeja, MD, and colleagues found that ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel), a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy with two B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeting single-domain antibodies, produced a high rate of...

lymphoma

Dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε Inhibitor Umbralisib in Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Nathan H. Fowler, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, a phase IIb trial (UNITY-NHL) has shown that the dual PI3Kδ/casein kinase (CK)1ε inhibitor umbralisib produced durable responses in patients with relapsed...

lymphoma

Addition of Copanlisib to Rituximab Improves Progression-Free Survival in Relapsed Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Matthew J. Matasar, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase III CHRONOS-3 trial has shown that the addition of the pan-class I PI3K inhibitor copanlisib to rituximab significantly improved progression-free survival vs rituximab ...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Consolidation Durvalumab Alone or Combined With Oleclumab or Monalizumab for Unresectable Stage III NSCLC

In an interim analysis of the phase II COAST trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, FACP, FASCO, and colleagues found that consolidation durvalumab in combination with the anti-CD73 antibody oleclumab or anti-NKG2A antibody monalizumab both improved objective...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

Lenvatinib/Pembrolizumab vs Sunitinib in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robert Motzer, MD, and colleagues found that patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving lenvatinib/pembrolizumab had similar or favorable health-related quality of life scores and prolonged time to definitive deterioration...

lung cancer

Segmentectomy vs Lobectomy in Small-Sized Peripheral NSCLC

In a Japanese phase III trial (JCOG0802/WJOG4607L) reported in The Lancet, Saji et al found that segmentectomy was both noninferior and superior to lobectomy as measured by overall survival in patients with small-sized peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details In the open-label...

gynecologic cancers

Topical Imiquimod vs Surgery for Vulvar High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia

In an Austrian phase III trial reported in The Lancet, Trutnovsky et al found that topical imiquimod was noninferior to surgery as measured by complete clinical response in patients with vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Study Details In the multicenter trial, 107 evaluable...

pancreatic cancer
immunotherapy

SBRT Plus Nivolumab With or Without Ipilimumab in Refractory Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

In the Danish single-institution phase II CheckPAC study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chen et al found that the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) improved the clinical benefit rate vs nivolumab plus SBRT in patients with refractory...

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