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solid tumors

NRG1 Gene Fusions Detected at Low Incidence Across Multiple Tumor Types

A consortium of researchers have completed an analysis of a new gene fusion they believe is responsible for the development of a wide spectrum of cancer types. According to the investigators, their studies show that errant gene fusions in neuregulin-1, or NRG1, which are present in about...

solid tumors

AACR 2019: Phase I Trial Evaluates LOXO-195 in Patients With NTRK-Positive Solid Tumors

The investigational anticancer therapeutic LOXO-195, which targets a family of proteins called tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKs), was safe, tolerable, and showed signs of clinical activity in patients who had solid tumors that harbored NTRK gene fusions and had become resistant to other...

solid tumors

Serum MicroRNA-371a-3p as a Biomarker for Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dieckmann et al found that serum levels of microRNA (miR)-371a-3p (M371 test) showed very high accuracy for detecting testicular germ cell tumors. Study Details In the prospective international study, serum samples from 616 patients with...

breast cancer
solid tumors
gynecologic cancer
lymphoma
survivorship

Subsequent Primary Neoplasms in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

In a UK population-based cohort study (Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Bright et al found that subsequent primary neoplasms were most common in survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) breast, cervical, and testicular cancers, as well as Hodgkin...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Effect of Adjuvant Treatment for Early Testicular Cancer on Reproductive Potential

Men with early-stage testicular cancer can safely receive one course of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy without it having a long-term effect on their reproductive potential, according to a study published by Weibring et al in Annals of Oncology. Although it is known already that several...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

2019 ASCO-SITC: Combined Targeting of TIM-3 and PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Pathways in Advanced Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors

A phase Ia/Ib trial was launched in order to evaluate the safety of LY3321367, an anti–T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain–containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) antibody, administered alone or in combination with LY3300054, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, in...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

TAT 2019: Use of the Lung Immune Prognostic Index in Stratifying Outcomes in Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

The Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI) calculated prior to the initiation of treatment may be used to stratify patients with diverse tumor types into groups that significantly associate with outcome following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, according to a retrospective study presented at the...

solid tumors

Neoplasm and Malignancy Risk in Nonproband Carriers of Pathogenic Germline Variants in DICER1

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Stewart et al identified the risk of neoplasms and malignancies among nonproband carriers of pathogenic germline variants in DICER1. The nonproband carriers were the biologic relatives of probands enrolled in three cohorts of individuals...

solid tumors
leukemia
lung cancer
lymphoma

FDA Pipeline: Priority Reviews in Solid Tumors and Lymphoma; Plus an sNDA in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Over the past week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted multiple Priority Reviews and accepted a supplemental new drug application: Priority Review for Entrectinib in NTRK Fusion–Positive Solid Tumors and Metastatic, ROS1-Positive NSCLC This week, the FDA accepted new drug...

solid tumors

Craig R. Nichols, MD, on Testicular Cancer Cases: Should They Be Discussed With High-Volume Centers?

Craig R. Nichols, MD, of the Testicular Cancer Commons and the SWOG Group Chair's Office, discusses the superior outcomes obtained at high-volume centers, the impracticality of referring all patients to such centers, and the international efforts to develop virtual collaborations on salvage management and post-chemotherapy surgery.

solid tumors

Stefanie C. Fischer, MD, on Nonseminoma: Outcomes After Adjuvant Bleomycin/Etoposide/Cisplatin

Stefanie C. Fischer, MD, of Manchester Cancer Research Centre and The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, discusses an international retrospective analysis of the rare clinical scenario of men relapsing after adjuvant treatment with bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin for clinical stage I nonseminoma (Abstract 510).

solid tumors

Inherited Variants in CHEK2 and Susceptibility to Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, AlDubayan et al found that inherited pathogenetic variants in the checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2), among inherited pathogenetic DNA-repair gene (DRG) alterations, were associated with susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors. The study involved screening ...

solid tumors
lymphoma
pancreatic cancer
symptom management

FDA Pipeline: Treatments for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor and Pancreatic Cancer, Plus a Statement on Breast Implant–Associated Lymphoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted the following designations and applications and also issued a statement: Priority Review for Pexidartinib in Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor The FDA has accepted a new drug application (NDA) and granted Priority Review for pexidartinib...

solid tumors

Impact of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy on Survival for Patients With Advanced Cancers

The first report from a phase II, multicenter clinical trial has found that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy—stereotactic ablative radiation—can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage IV cancers, while maintaining their quality of life. The study was...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
legislation

ASCO Clinical Cancer Advances 2019 Names Advance of the Year: Progress in Treating Rare Cancers

Over the past year, major research advances provided new treatment options for patients with rare, difficult-to-treat cancers. In recognition of these achievements, ASCO named “Progress in Treating Rare Cancers” as the Advance of the Year. To continue the forward momentum, ASCO also...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

Standard Site-Specific Therapy Based on Gene-Expression Profiling vs Empirical Chemotherapy for Cancer of Unknown Primary

In a Japanese phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hayashi et al found that standard site-specific treatment based on gene-expression profiling was not associated with better outcomes vs empirical paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with cancer of unknown primary site....

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Overall Survival in Men and Women Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Advanced Cancers

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Wallis et al found no difference in overall survival benefit in women vs men receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for advanced solid tumors. The authors noted that a prior analysis had suggested men derived a greater...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

2019 GI Cancers Symposium: Pembrolizumab in Pretreated, Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors

Findings from the phase I KEYNOTE-028 trial, which studied pembrolizumab in a number of solid tumors, showed activity of the immunotherapy in some patients with heavily pretreated neuroendocrine tumors. Now, a phase II basket trial—KEYNOTE-158—is studying the efficacy and safety of...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Common Markers of Tumor Hypoxia Found Across Cancer Types

Unlike healthy tissues, tumors thrive in low-oxygen environments, often acquiring the ability to resist treatment and spread to other sites in the body. Despite being a well-known cause of therapy resistance and metastasis, the impact of hypoxia on tumor cells is poorly understood. Researchers have ...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
hematologic malignancies
pancreatic cancer
symptom management

FDA Pipeline: Designations for Treatments of Graft-vs-Host-Disease, Colorectal Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, and More

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently issued the following new designations and clearances: Fast Track Designation for Itolizumab for the Treatment of Acute Graft-vs-Host Disease The FDA granted Fast Track designation to itolizumab for the treatment of acute graft-vs-host ...

solid tumors

Detection of Relapse in Children and Adolescents With Nongerminomatous Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

In a report from the Children’s Oncology Group published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fonseca et al found that relapse in children and adolescents with nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs) was most frequently identified by tumor markers rather than imaging. Study...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Factors Influencing Response to Pembrolizumab in Various Advanced Cancers

In an analysis from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-028 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ott et al found that response to pembrolizumab across different cancers was more likely in patients with higher tumor mutational burden, T-cell–inflamed gene-expression profile, and programmed...

solid tumors

Sorafenib in Progressive, Symptomatic, or Recurrent Desmoid Tumors

In a phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Gounder et al found that sorafenib improved progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with progressive, symptomatic, or recurrent desmoid tumors. As noted by the investigators, there is no current standard of care for...

breast cancer
solid tumors
leukemia
lung cancer
lymphoma
multiple myeloma
issues in oncology
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: New Priority Reviews, Designations, and Clearances, Plus Statements on Genetic Testing and Class Labeling

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently issued the following new approvals and designations: Priority Review for Atezolizumab in Combination With Chemotherapy for the Initial Treatment of Extensive-Stage SCLC The FDA accepted a supplemental biologics license application...

solid tumors

EORTC-NCI-AACR: Investigational Anti-HER2 Therapy in HER2-Expressing Solid Tumors

An antibody that binds simultaneously to two distinct regions of the HER2 receptor to block the growth of cancer cells has shown antitumor activity in a number of cancers, including those of the esophagus, stomach, and bowel. Updated results from a phase I clinical trial of the treatment, called...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Larotrectinib for Solid Tumors With NTRK Gene Fusions

On November 26, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to larotrectinib (Vitrakvi) for adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have a neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusion without a known acquired resistance mutation, whose...

solid tumors

NCRI 2018: HiLo Trial: Rate of Thyroid Cancer Recurrence After Adjuvant Lower-Dose Radiation

Patients with thyroid cancer whose disease is at low risk of returning can be treated safely with a smaller amount of radiation following surgery, according to results from the HiLo trial presented by Wadsley et al at the 2018 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference (Abstract...

solid tumors

Transcription Factors TP63 and SOX2 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are malignancies arising from squamous epithelium of various organs, such as esophagus, head and neck, lung, and skin.  Previous studies demonstrated that two master transcription factors, TP63 and SOX2, effect genomic activation in SCCs. Now, researchers from...

solid tumors

Prevalence of Lynch Syndrome in Solid Tumors According to Microsatellite Instability Status

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Latham et al found that microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) is predictive of Lynch syndrome across a greater than heretofore recognized breadth of the solid tumor spectrum. As noted by the...

solid tumors

Incidental Germline Mutations in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Identified by Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA Testing

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Slavin et al determined the prevalence of a set of germline cancer predisposition gene mutations incidentally identified by cell-free circulating tumor DNA (cfDNA) testing in patients with advanced solid tumors. Study Details The study...

solid tumors

FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to LOXO-292 for RET Fusion–Positive Thyroid Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to LOXO-292, a selective RET inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with advanced RET fusion–positive thyroid cancer who require systemic therapy, have had disease progression following...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

2018 ASTRO: Phase I Trial of SBRT for Oligometastatic Disease With Multiple Metastases

The phase I NRG Oncology clinical trial BR001 tested the hypothesis that stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) could be used safely in patients with oligometastatic disease characterized by multiple metastases. Results from the trial indicate that using SBRT is safe as treatment for patients with 2 ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Fluoropyrimidine DPYD Genotype–Guided Dosing in Patients With Cancer

In a Dutch study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Henricks et al found that DPYD genotype–guided dosing reduced the frequency of severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity in patients with cancer. Increased fluoropyrimidine toxicity is associated with reduced activity of the metabolic...

solid tumors

2018 ASTRO: SABR-COMET: Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Oligometastatic Tumors

In the first randomized, phase II clinical trial of its kind, researchers have shown that an aggressive form of high-precision radiation therapy can increase survival in patients with oligometastatic tumors. These findings were presented by Palma et al in the plenary session at the 60th Annual ...

solid tumors

David Palma, MD, PhD, on Oligometastatic Tumors: Results From the SABR-COMET Trial

David Palma, MD, PhD, of the London Health Sciences Centre, discusses study findings on improvement in survival following stereotactic ablative radiation for oligometastatic tumors (Presentation 5 in PL 01).

solid tumors

Utility of FDG-PET for Residual Lesions After Chemotherapy for Metastatic Seminoma

In an analysis of International Global Germ Cell Cancer Group Registry data reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Cathomas et al, fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) was found to have a low positive predictive value for vital tumor in residual lesions after...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Epacadostat Plus Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy in Advanced Solid Tumors

As reported by Mitchell et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the combination of the oral indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) enzyme inhibitor epacadostat and the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in advanced solid tumors in the ...

issues in oncology
solid tumors

Lalan S. Wilfong, MD, on Metastatic Solid Tumors: Limiting Low-Value Care

Lalan S. Wilfong, MD, of Texas Oncology, discusses reducing the use of a white blood cell growth factor treatment in advanced and incurable solid tumors for patients treated at a community oncology practice.

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Bacterial Therapy Tolerable, Shows Early Activity in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

A phase I clinical trial investigating the use of bacterial Clostridium novyi-NT spores as an injectable monotherapy had manageable toxicities and showed early clinical efficacy in patients with treatment-refractory solid tumor malignancies, according to data presented at the CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Cancer Vaccine Shows Clinical Benefit in Phase I Study of Patients With HER2-Positive Cancers

A preclinical study showing that a vaccination with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a truncated ErbB-2 antigen can cure advanced established murine breast cancer as well as extensive established metastatic lung cancer led to the launch of a small phase I study investigating a therapeutic cancer ...

solid tumors

Bleomycin-Related Toxicity and Operative Morbidity After Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Germ Cell Tumors

In a retrospective single-institution analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Calaway et al found that the addition of bleomycin to etoposide/cisplatin did not appear to increase risk of pulmonary or postoperative morbidity after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection ...

solid tumors
lung cancer

FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to LOXO-292 for Treatment of Lung and Thyroid Cancers

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to LOXO-292, a selective RET inhibitor, for: the treatment of patients with metastatic RET fusion–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who require systemic therapy and have had...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

FDA Warns of Increased Risk of Cancer Relapse With Long-Term Use of Azithromycin After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that the antibiotic azithromycin should not be given on a long-term basis to prevent the inflammatory lung condition bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients with cancers of the blood or lymph nodes who undergo a donor stem cell...

solid tumors

BRAF V600E and Disease-Specific Mortality in Men With Papillary Thyroid Cancer

In a large-scale retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wang et al found that male sex is a predictor of poorer disease-specific survival in BRAF V600E papillary thyroid cancer. The study involved 2,638 patients (male = 623, female = 2,015) from 11 centers in 6...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

Monthly High-Dose Vitamin D and Cancer Risk

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Scragg et al found that monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation, without calcium, was not associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer. Study Details The current analysis is a post hoc analysis of the Vitamin D Assessment (ViDA) study, which...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Iobenguane I-131 for Rare Adrenal Gland Tumors

On July 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved iobenguane I-131 (Azedra) injection for adult and pediatric patients (12 years and older) with iobenguane scan–positive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) who require systemic...

solid tumors

Risk of Cancer After Treatment of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer

In a Dutch study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Groot et al found that the risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms was increased in the long-term follow up of patients receiving cisplatin or radiotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Risk vs General Population The study involved...

solid tumors

PDL1 Amplification in Solid Tumors

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Goodman et al found amplification of PDL1 genes in 0.7% of solid tumors, including more than 100 tumor types. Response to checkpoint inhibition was high in a small group of patients with PDL1 amplification. Prevalence of PDL1 Amplification The study included...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in Platinum-Refractory or Relapsed Thymic Epithelial Tumors

In a Korean single-center phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cho et al found that pembrolizumab (Keytruda) was active in advanced thymic epithelial tumors progressing after platinum-based chemotherapy. Study Details The study included 26 patients with thymic carcinoma...

solid tumors
supportive care

Prognostic Model for Malignant Pleural Effusion

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Psallidas et al developed a model that is predictive of 3-month survival in patients with malignant pleural effusion. Study Details The PROMISE study involved an analysis of 5 independent data sets from randomized trials to discover, validate, and prospectively ...

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