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solid tumors
issues in oncology
sarcoma
issues in oncology

Population-Based Study Finds Patients With Gastrointestinal Tumors at Higher Risk of Other Cancers

Researchers at the University of California (UC) San Diego School of Medicine conducted the first population-based study that characterizes the association and temporal relationship between gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and other cancers. The results, published by Murphy et al in Cancer,...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancer
prostate cancer
issues in oncology
solid tumors

AACR 2015: New PARP Inhibitor Combination Shows Early Promise for a Wide Range of Cancer Patients

A combination of two molecularly targeted drugs, olaparib (Lynparza) and the investigational agent AZD5363, was safe and yielded responses in patients with a variety of cancer types, including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers, regardless of BRCA1/2-mutation status, according to data from the...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
issues in oncology
gastroesophageal cancer

AACR 2015: Long-Term, Regular Aspirin Use Modestly Decreased Cancer Risk

Long-term, regular aspirin use was associated with a modestly reduced overall risk for cancer, driven primarily by a reduction in the risk for colorectal cancers, according to research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2015, held April 18 to 22 in Philadelphia (Abstract 876). “Previous...

solid tumors

AACR 2015: Pembrolizumab Safe, With Signs of Clinical Benefit, for Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) was safe, tolerable, and yielded robust antitumor responses in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, according to data from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-028 clinical trial presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2015, held April 18 to 22 in Philadelphia (Abstract CT103)....

palliative care
gynecologic cancer
pancreatic cancer
solid tumors

AACR 2015: Investigational CART-meso Immunotherapy Feasible for Patients With Advanced Cancers

Patients with advanced cancers who received mesothelin-directed chimeric antigen receptor–modified T cells (CART-meso), a type of investigational adoptive immunotherapy, tolerated the treatment well, and there was evidence that the infused immune cells persisted in the patients’ blood...

solid tumors

No Survival Benefit of Vorinostat in Progressive Advanced Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In the phase III VANTAGE-014 study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Krug et al found that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (Zolinza) did not improve overall survival vs placebo in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who had progressed on previous chemotherapy....

issues in oncology
solid tumors

Study Finds Link Between Muscle-Building Supplements and Testicular Cancer

Men who reported taking muscle-building supplements, such as pills and powders with creatine or androstenedione, reported a significantly higher likelihood of having developed testicular cancer than men who did not use such supplements, according to a study by Li et al in the British Journal of...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Shows Distribution of Targetable Alterations in Carcinomas of Unknown Primary Site

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ross et al found potentially targetable genomic alterations in most carcinomas of unknown primary site using comprehensive genomic profiling. Adenocarcinomas of unknown primary site frequently harbored receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/MAPK pathway alterations....

issues in oncology
solid tumors

Researchers Map Genomic Landscape of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors for the First Time

In an advance that could lead to better identification of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors, and ultimately to better treatment, researchers have mapped the genomic landscape of these rare childhood tumors. Their genomic mapping has revealed unprecedented details, not only of the aberrant...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

Patients who received chemotherapy after bladder cancer surgery demonstrated an approximately 30% lower risk of death than those who underwent surgery alone, according to an analysis presented by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai at the 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer
solid tumors

Men Who Have Had Testicular Cancer May Be More Likely to Develop Prostate Cancer

A case-control study of close to 180,000 men suggests that the incidence of prostate cancer is higher among men with a history of testicular cancer (12.6%) than among those without a history of testicular cancer (2.8%). Men who have had testicular cancer were also more likely to develop...

issues in oncology
cns cancers
cns cancers
pancreatic cancer
issues in oncology
solid tumors

ATRX Mutation Linked to Brain and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors May Be Biomarker for Rare Adrenal Tumors

A somatic mutation in the ATRX gene has recently been identified as a potential molecular marker for gliomas, neuroblastomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Now, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found that the same mutated gene may serve...

gynecologic cancer
solid tumors

Revised Risk Classification for Pediatric Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Frazier et al used data from U.S. and UK clinical trials to identify a high-risk group of patients with pediatric extracranial germ cell tumors. Study Details The study involved data from seven germ cell tumor trials conducted by the...

issues in oncology
solid tumors

Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals a High Number of Genomic Mutations in Advanced Malignant Plural Mesothelioma

Next-generation sequencing in malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors shows a complex mutational setting with a high number of genetic alterations in genes involved in DNA repair, cell survival, and cell proliferation pathways, according to a study by Lo Iacono et al in the Journal of Thoracic...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

No Overall Survival Difference for Immediate vs Deferred Chemotherapy After Radical Cystectomy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

In the phase III EORTC 30994 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sternberg et al found no overall survival difference between immediate and delayed adjuvant chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Immediate treatment was...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Intensified Chemotherapy Based on Tumor Marker Decline May Improve Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Poor-Prognosis Germ Cell Tumors

In the phase III GETUG 13 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Fizazi et al found that treatment intensification based on early tumor marker decline resulted in a numeric and borderline statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival in patients with poor-prognosis germ cell...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Novel Genomic Signature Predicts Postcystectomy Recurrence in High-Risk Bladder Cancer

As reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Mitra et al have identified a novel genomic-based signature that improves prediction of postcystectomy recurrence in patients with high-risk bladder cancer. Use of the signature could help guide selection of patients for adjuvant therapy...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

RTOG Pooled Analysis Shows Good Long-Term Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Combined-Modality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

In a pooled analysis of prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Mak et al found good long-term outcomes with bladder-preserving combined-modality therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Study Details The analysis included 468...

solid tumors

Good Long-Term Outcomes With Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

In a Danish population-based cohort study reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology, Daugaard and colleagues found that surveillance for stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer after orchiectomy was associated with high cure rate and low treatment burden over long-term follow-up. Study Details The...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

FDA Approves Ramucirumab in Combination With Paclitaxel for Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved ramucirumab (Cyramza) for use in combination with paclitaxel for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Ramucirumab was approved in April 2014 as a single agent for the treatment of...

solid tumors

First-Line FOLFIRI Improves Time to Treatment Failure and Is Better Tolerated vs ECX in Advanced Gastric Cancer

In a phase III French Intergroup trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Guimbaud et al found that FOLFIRI (fluorouracil [5-FU], leucovorin, and irinotecan) significantly prolonged time to treatment failure compared with ECX (epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine) in first-line...

solid tumors

Study Identifies Groups at Risk for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have, for the first time, clearly defined the epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), which occur primarily in the lining of the stomach and small intestine. Of note was the discovery that patients of Asian...

solid tumors

Second-Line Ramucirumab Plus Paclitaxel Improves Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Gastric Cancer

The addition of the monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist ramucirumab (Cyramza) to paclitaxel led to a statistically significant improvement in median overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma in a phase III trial, reported Wilke et al in ...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Active Surveillance for Clinical Stage I Testicular Cancer Associated With ‘Excellent’ Outcomes

In a retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kollmannsberger et al found that active surveillance for patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer is associated with very good outcomes. Most relapses occurred within 2 years of orchiectomy in patients with nonseminoma...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Study Suggests That Primary Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Does Not Improve Long-Term Survival in Older Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

Primary androgen-deprivation therapy has been widely used in localized prostate cancer, despite absence of definitive evidence of benefit in early-stage disease. In a large population-based cohort study reported in JAMA Internal Medicine, Lu-Yao et al found that primary androgen-deprivation therapy ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Study Defines Four Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer

Investigators of The Cancer Genome Atlas project have developed a molecular classification that divides gastric cancer into four major genomic subtypes, according to a study published in Nature. They include (1) tumors positive for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that display recurrent PIK3CA...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Vasectomy Associated With Modestly Increased Risk of High-Grade and Lethal Prostate Cancer

An analysis of data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study reported by Siddiqui et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicates that vasectomy is associated with a modestly but significantly increased risk of high-grade and lethal prostate cancer. The study involved data from 49,405...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Testicular Cancer Rates Are on the Rise in Young Hispanic Americans

A new analysis has found that rates of testicular cancer have been rising dramatically in recent years among young Hispanic American men, but not among their non-Hispanic counterparts. Published early online in Cancer, the findings indicate that greater awareness is needed concerning the increasing ...

solid tumors

No Survival Benefit of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Partial Pleurectomy vs Talc Pleurodesis in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In light of nonrandomized studies suggesting benefit of video-assisted thoracoscopic partial pleurectomy (VAT-PP) in symptom control and survival, Rintoul et al performed a randomized trial (MesoVATS) of VAT-PP vs talc pleurodesis in malignant pleural mesothelioma. As reported in The Lancet, this...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Adding Rilotumumab to First-Line Chemotherapy May Benefit Patients With Advanced Gastric or Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor MET have been found to promote the proliferation, migration, and survival of tumor cells and to play a role in gastric cancer. In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Iveson et al found evidence of benefit from adding the anti-HGF...

solid tumors

Phase III Trial Indicates That S-1 Monotherapy Should Remain Standard Treatment of Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer in Japan

The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 is standard treatment for locally advanced gastric cancer in Japan. In a Japanese phase III trial (SAMIT) in locally advanced disease reported in The Lancet Oncology, Tsuburaya et al found that sequential paclitaxel plus tegafur and uracil or S-1 did not improve...

solid tumors

Adding Lapatinib to Paclitaxel Does Not Improve Survival as Second-Line Therapy in Asian Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Gastric Cancer

Weekly paclitaxel is used as second-line treatment in advanced gastric cancer, including HER2-positive disease, in Asian countries. In the phase III TyTAN trial in Asian patients reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Satoh et al assessed the addition of the anti-HER2 agent lapatinib...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Studies Evaluate Racial Variations, Cost, and Influence of Access to Care in the Management and Treatment of Testicular Cancer

A series of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness, risks, and outcomes associated with detecting, diagnosing, and treating testicular cancer were presented at a press conference during the 2014 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association in Orlando, Florida. Although...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Accelerated Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin With Pegfilgrastim Is Effective, Well-Tolerated Neoadjuvant Therapy for Bladder Cancer

Although neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, it is not widely used due to concerns over toxicity and delayed cystectomy. In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Plimack et al evaluated whether a neoadjuvant...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Neoadjuvant Dose-Dense Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin With Pegfilgrastim: Safe and Effective in Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Choueiri et al found that a neoadjuvant four-cycle/8-week regimen of dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin was well tolerated and effective in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial cancer. Study Details ...

head and neck cancer
solid tumors

No Difference in Disease-Free Survival but Less Steroid Dependence With Adrenal-Sparing Surgery vs Adrenalectomy in Pheochromocytoma

Molecular diagnosis and preventive surgery have been successful in preventing medullary thyroid cancer in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome. In a retrospective population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Castinetti et al found no difference in disease-free...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Ramucirumab for Stomach Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ramucirumab (Cyramza) to treat patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy....

solid tumors
supportive care

Consumptive Hypothyroidism in GIST Associated With Increased D3 Expression

In a report in The New England Journal of Medicine, Maynard et al discuss identification of consumptive hypothyroidism due to overexpression of thyroid hormone–inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and subsequent...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Tumor Size, Location, and Mitotic Rate, but Not Genotype, Associated With Recurrence-Free Survival in Trial of Adjuvant Imatinib vs Placebo in GIST

The ACOSOG Z9001 (Alliance) study showed that 1 year of adjuvant imatinib (Gleevec) prolonged recurrence-free survival after resection of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). As reported by Corless et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a study evaluating correlation of pathologic...

gynecologic cancer
pancreatic cancer
solid tumors

Novel Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Ovarian Cancer and Mesothelioma

A novel approach to cancer immunotherapy may provide a new and cost-effective strategy against ovarian cancer and mesothelioma. In a study published in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology, Yuan et al reported that a fusion protein engineered to combine a molecule targeting a tumor-cell-surface ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Robotic-Assisted Prostate Surgery May Offer Better Cancer Control Than Open Radical Prostatectomy

An observational study from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center comparing robotic-assisted surgery to traditional surgery for prostate cancer found that patients who had robotic surgery had fewer instances of cancer cells remaining after surgery and less need of additional cancer...

solid tumors

Compound Screening Identifies Novel Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Using high-throughput screening of already FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) cell lines, researchers have discovered that GIST cells display a high sensitivity to transcriptional and topoisomerase II inhibitors. The finding could bring new treatments to...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

High Incidence of Complications Other Than Urinary Incontinence or Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Studies of complications of surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer generally focus on incontinence and erectile dysfunction. In a population-based cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nam et al assessed the frequency of other complications associated with such treatment and found high ...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Patients With Near-Complete Response After Induction Therapy May Be Candidates for Bladder-Sparing Therapy

Bladder-sparing approaches are typically reserved for patients with bladder cancer who have a complete response to combined modality induction therapy (radiation plus chemotherapy). A new phase II study suggests that patients with near-complete response should also be considered for bladder-sparing ...

solid tumors

Studies Evaluate Trends in the Surgical Management of Penile Cancer

A large retrospective population-based study shows that potentially fatal penile cancers are surgically undertreated in the United States and more benign penile cancers are surgically overtreated. Even though penile cancer is rare in the United States, accounting for about 1,570 new cases in 2013...

solid tumors
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Bladder Cancer Study Uncovers Potential Drug Targets and Molecular Similarities to Other Cancers

Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, a common cancer that causes about 150,000 deaths worldwide each year. The researchers also found molecular similarities to some subtypes of breast,...

solid tumors

One-Fifth of Hospitalizations for Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancer Considered Avoidable

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Brooks et al found that oncology clinicians considered 19% of hospitalizations for patients with gastrointestinal cancers to be avoidable. Study Details In the study, 201 sequential hospital admissions in 154 patients with gastrointestinal...

solid tumors

Ramucirumab Combination Improves Overall Survival After First Progression in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Cancer

In the global phase III RAINBOW trial of patients with metastatic gastric cancer, the investigational monoclonal antibody ramucirumab significantly improved both progression-free and overall survival when given as second-line therapy, investigators reported at a press briefing in advance of the...

issues in oncology
solid tumors

High Presurgical Levels of Angiogenic and Growth Factors Are Associated With Poorer Survival After Gastric Resection

In patients undergoing gastric resection for gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancers, high levels of angiogenic and growth factors are associated with poorer overall survival, according to the results of a retrospective study presented by Park et al in the Annals of Surgical Oncology. Thus, these ...

solid tumors

Disease-Free Survival Is Acceptable Surrogate for Overall Survival in Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancers

Disease-free survival is an acceptable surrogate for overall survival in trials of cytotoxic agents for gastric cancer in the adjuvant setting, the GASTRIC group concluded after conducting a meta-analysis of data from 3,288 individual patients enrolled in 14 randomized clinical trials. The trials...

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