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solid tumors

Adding Lapatinib to Paclitaxel Does Not Improve Survival as Second-Line Therapy in Asian Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Gastric Cancer

Weekly paclitaxel is used as second-line treatment in advanced gastric cancer, including HER2-positive disease, in Asian countries. In the phase III TyTAN trial in Asian patients reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Satoh et al assessed the addition of the anti-HER2 agent lapatinib...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Studies Evaluate Racial Variations, Cost, and Influence of Access to Care in the Management and Treatment of Testicular Cancer

A series of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness, risks, and outcomes associated with detecting, diagnosing, and treating testicular cancer were presented at a press conference during the 2014 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association in Orlando, Florida. Although...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Accelerated Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin With Pegfilgrastim Is Effective, Well-Tolerated Neoadjuvant Therapy for Bladder Cancer

Although neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, it is not widely used due to concerns over toxicity and delayed cystectomy. In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Plimack et al evaluated whether a neoadjuvant...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Neoadjuvant Dose-Dense Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin With Pegfilgrastim: Safe and Effective in Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Choueiri et al found that a neoadjuvant four-cycle/8-week regimen of dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin was well tolerated and effective in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial cancer. Study Details ...

head and neck cancer
solid tumors

No Difference in Disease-Free Survival but Less Steroid Dependence With Adrenal-Sparing Surgery vs Adrenalectomy in Pheochromocytoma

Molecular diagnosis and preventive surgery have been successful in preventing medullary thyroid cancer in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome. In a retrospective population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Castinetti et al found no difference in disease-free...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Ramucirumab for Stomach Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ramucirumab (Cyramza) to treat patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy....

solid tumors
supportive care

Consumptive Hypothyroidism in GIST Associated With Increased D3 Expression

In a report in The New England Journal of Medicine, Maynard et al discuss identification of consumptive hypothyroidism due to overexpression of thyroid hormone–inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and subsequent...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Tumor Size, Location, and Mitotic Rate, but Not Genotype, Associated With Recurrence-Free Survival in Trial of Adjuvant Imatinib vs Placebo in GIST

The ACOSOG Z9001 (Alliance) study showed that 1 year of adjuvant imatinib (Gleevec) prolonged recurrence-free survival after resection of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). As reported by Corless et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a study evaluating correlation of pathologic...

gynecologic cancer
pancreatic cancer
solid tumors

Novel Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Ovarian Cancer and Mesothelioma

A novel approach to cancer immunotherapy may provide a new and cost-effective strategy against ovarian cancer and mesothelioma. In a study published in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology, Yuan et al reported that a fusion protein engineered to combine a molecule targeting a tumor-cell-surface ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Robotic-Assisted Prostate Surgery May Offer Better Cancer Control Than Open Radical Prostatectomy

An observational study from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center comparing robotic-assisted surgery to traditional surgery for prostate cancer found that patients who had robotic surgery had fewer instances of cancer cells remaining after surgery and less need of additional cancer...

solid tumors

Compound Screening Identifies Novel Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Using high-throughput screening of already FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) cell lines, researchers have discovered that GIST cells display a high sensitivity to transcriptional and topoisomerase II inhibitors. The finding could bring new treatments to...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

High Incidence of Complications Other Than Urinary Incontinence or Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Studies of complications of surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer generally focus on incontinence and erectile dysfunction. In a population-based cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nam et al assessed the frequency of other complications associated with such treatment and found high ...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Patients With Near-Complete Response After Induction Therapy May Be Candidates for Bladder-Sparing Therapy

Bladder-sparing approaches are typically reserved for patients with bladder cancer who have a complete response to combined modality induction therapy (radiation plus chemotherapy). A new phase II study suggests that patients with near-complete response should also be considered for bladder-sparing ...

solid tumors

Studies Evaluate Trends in the Surgical Management of Penile Cancer

A large retrospective population-based study shows that potentially fatal penile cancers are surgically undertreated in the United States and more benign penile cancers are surgically overtreated. Even though penile cancer is rare in the United States, accounting for about 1,570 new cases in 2013...

solid tumors
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Bladder Cancer Study Uncovers Potential Drug Targets and Molecular Similarities to Other Cancers

Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, a common cancer that causes about 150,000 deaths worldwide each year. The researchers also found molecular similarities to some subtypes of breast,...

solid tumors

One-Fifth of Hospitalizations for Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancer Considered Avoidable

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Brooks et al found that oncology clinicians considered 19% of hospitalizations for patients with gastrointestinal cancers to be avoidable. Study Details In the study, 201 sequential hospital admissions in 154 patients with gastrointestinal...

solid tumors

Ramucirumab Combination Improves Overall Survival After First Progression in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Cancer

In the global phase III RAINBOW trial of patients with metastatic gastric cancer, the investigational monoclonal antibody ramucirumab significantly improved both progression-free and overall survival when given as second-line therapy, investigators reported at a press briefing in advance of the...

issues in oncology
solid tumors

High Presurgical Levels of Angiogenic and Growth Factors Are Associated With Poorer Survival After Gastric Resection

In patients undergoing gastric resection for gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancers, high levels of angiogenic and growth factors are associated with poorer overall survival, according to the results of a retrospective study presented by Park et al in the Annals of Surgical Oncology. Thus, these ...

solid tumors

Disease-Free Survival Is Acceptable Surrogate for Overall Survival in Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancers

Disease-free survival is an acceptable surrogate for overall survival in trials of cytotoxic agents for gastric cancer in the adjuvant setting, the GASTRIC group concluded after conducting a meta-analysis of data from 3,288 individual patients enrolled in 14 randomized clinical trials. The trials...

solid tumors

Novel Agents Produce Encouraging Trends in Gastric Cancer

Several novel agents targeting the HER2, C-MET, and VEGF receptors have achieved encouraging results in gastric cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Charles Fuchs, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, reviewed these new approaches in a presentation at the...

solid tumors

FDA Grants Priority Review to Ramucirumab as a Potential Single-Agent Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has assigned Priority Review to the regulatory submission for ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) as a single-agent treatment for advanced gastric cancer following disease progression after initial chemotherapy. Ramucirumab is a human monoclonal antibody that...

solid tumors

Imatinib Rechallenge Slows Disease Progression in Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable GIST After Imatinib and Sunitinib

In the RIGHT trial, reported in The Lancet Oncology, Yoon-Koo Kang, MD, of University of Ulsan College of Medicine in Seoul, and colleagues assessed the effects of imatinib (Gleevec) rechallenge in patients with metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) after objective...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Standard and Reduced High-Dose Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Have Comparable Tumor Control

Standard and reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer provide comparable tumor control and decreased late toxicity when compared to surgery, according to a study published in the October issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Patients With Poor Nutritional Status Before Radical Cystectomy Have a Higher Risk of Postoperative Complications

Patients with bladder cancer are two times more likely to have complications after a radical cystectomy procedure if they have a biomarker for poor nutritional status before the operation, according to study findings presented at the 2013 Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons....

solid tumors

Everolimus Does Not Improve Overall Survival in Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer

In a phase III trial (GRANITE-1 study) reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology by Atsushi Ohtsu, MD, PhD, of the National Cancer Center Hospital East in Kashiwa, Japan, and colleagues, everolimus (Afinitor) plus best supportive care did not prolong overall survival compared with placebo plus best...

solid tumors

Ramucirumab Prolongs Survival in Advanced Gastric Cancer

An investigational targeted drug that reduces blood flow to tumors prolonged the survival of patients with advanced stomach cancer after standard treatments failed, according to results of large multicenter clinical trial reported by Charles S. Fuchs, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and...

solid tumors

ECC 2013: Molecular Sequencing Identifies Drug Targets for Cancers of Unknown Primary Origin

Cancers of unknown primary origin pose a treatment dilemma for oncologists and a great deal of anxiety for patients and their families. A study reported at the European Cancer Congress 2013 in Amsterdam (Abstract LBA39) shows that molecular profiling can identify targetable mutations in up to 80%...

solid tumors

Japanese Study Shows Endoscopic Dual Tracer Method for Sentinel Node Mapping in Gastric Cancer Is Safe and Accurate

In a study reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology, Yuko Kitagawa, MD, FACS, of Keio University School of Medicine, and colleagues found that sentinel node mapping using a standardized dual tracer endoscopic injection technique was safe and accurate in patients with gastric cancer. Study Details ...

solid tumors

Tremelimumab Shows Some Activity in Chemotherapy-Resistant Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma, Phase II Study Finds

Tremelimumab is an anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) monoclonal antibody, a class of inhibitor that has shown activity in multiple tumor types. Ipilimumab (Yervoy), another agent in this class, was found to significantly prolong overall survival in metastatic melanoma despite a...

solid tumors

Neoadjuvant Carboplatin Before Radiotherapy May Reduce Risk of Relapse and Long-Term Side Effects in Men With Testicular Cancer

A new study published in the Annals of Oncology reports that giving men with testicular cancer a single dose of chemotherapy before radiotherapy could improve the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the risk of long-term side effects. As many as 96% of men with testicular cancer are predicted to ...

solid tumors

Study Identifies Interleukin-11 as a Potential New Anticancer Target

According to a study published online today in Cancer Cell, the molecule interleukin-11 may be a potential new target for anticancer therapies. Until now, interleukin-11’s role in cancer development has been underestimated, but researchers have recently identified this molecule as a "dark...

solid tumors

Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Mutation Signature in Aristolochic Acid–Associated Upper Urinary Tract Cancer

Genomic sequencing experts at Johns Hopkins partnered with pharmacologists at Stony Brook University to reveal a striking mutational signature of upper urinary tract cancers caused by aristolochic acid, a plant compound contained in herbal remedies used for thousands of years to treat a variety of...

solid tumors

Researchers Target ‘Cell Sleep’ to Lower Chances of Cancer Recurrence

An international research team led by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) discovered that by preventing cancer cells from entering a state of cellular sleep, cancer drugs are more effective, and there is a lower chance of cancer recurrence. The findings, published...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Bladder-sparing Trimodal Chemotherapy Produces Good Response in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

In a phase II study reported in Lancet Oncology, Timur Mitin, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues assessed the effects of adding paclitaxel or fluorouracil (5-FU) to radiation therapy plus cisplatin followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in a program of selected bladder preservation in ...

solid tumors

Five-year Survival Data from the Phase III CLASSIC Trial Show a 34% Reduction in Gastric Cancer Mortality

For patients with advanced gastric cancer, treatment with chemotherapy after surgery can reduce the risk of cancer-related death by 34% over 5 years compared to surgery alone, researchers reported at the 15th ESMO World Congress in Gastrointestinal Cancer (Abstract 007), held July 3 to 6 in...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

Progression of Renal Cell Carcinoma Linked to Shifts in Tumor Metabolism

Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Their findings demonstrate that normal...

solid tumors

ASCO 2013: Surveillance Sufficient Follow-up for Most Patients with Stage I Seminoma

Surveillance appears to be sufficient for men with stage I seminoma treated with orchiectomy, sparing patients from side effects of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. In a long-term study presented at the 2013 ASCO Annual Meeting (Abstract 4502), 99.5% of men followed by surveillance alone...

solid tumors
solid tumors

ASCO 2013: Surveillance Following Surgery Is Sufficient for Men with Stage I Seminoma

A long-term study of men with stage I seminoma, a common form of testicular cancer, suggests that surveillance for cancer recurrence, rather than additional chemotherapy or radiation therapy, is sufficient for the vast majority of men who have undergone successful surgery for their cancer....

issues in oncology
solid tumors
bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer Could Recur despite Bladder Removal

Patients with advanced bladder cancers that are surgically removed might need additional therapy to prevent recurrence in certain situations, a new UT Southwestern Medical Center study suggests. The 5-year international study led by researchers at UT Southwestern validates the use of a marker...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Regorafenib for Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

The FDA has expanded the approved use of regorafenib (Stivarga) to treat patients with metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that no longer respond to treatment with imatinib (Gleevec) or sunitinib (Sutent). Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, blocks several enzymes...

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