James Chih-Hsin Yang, MD, PhD, on Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC: Evaluating Pemetrexed and Platinum With or Without Pembrolizumab
2023 ASCO Annual Meeting
James Chih-Hsin Yang, MD, PhD, of the National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Cancer Center, discusses the latest data from the phase III KEYNOTE-789 study, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed plus platinum chemotherapy (carboplatin or cisplatin) with or without pembrolizumab in the treatment of adults with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor–resistant, EGFR–mutated, metastatic nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Abstract LBA9000).
Disclaimer: This video transcript has not been proofread or edited and may contain errors.
James Chih-Hsin Yang:
Patients who had EGFR mutation, stage four non-small cell lung cancer, the standard of care is tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a first line. When they fail, they have to receive chemotherapy as a standard of care. KEYNOTE-789 is a randomized phase three study, testing whether adding pembrolizumab to the standard chemotherapy is going to help overall survival and progression-free survival.
492 patients who are randomized into two arms. One, pembrolizumab plus end of care chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus placebo. The co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. There were three interim analysis. Progression-free survival time were done at the interim analysis two.
The hazard ratio was 0.8, which nearly touched the statistical significant P value of boundary 0.0117 and therefore miss the endpoint. The overall survival endpoint was done at the interim analysis three, which was then final analysis 42 months after the last patient's randomized. The overall survival hazard ratio was 0.84, was also statistically not significant.
We also look at the pathological and clinical factors. We try to figure out whether patients with different characteristics can benefit from pembrolizumab adding to chemotherapy. Unfortunately, there was only one factor that seems to help these patients, which is PD-L1 status. Patients who had PD-L1 more than 1%, which is close to 50% of the population, the hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.77. Where those patients who did not have PD-L1 expression, their hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.91. So, we had a study that we cannot change the standard practice, yet the finding that PD-L1 status may help us to choose a patient when asked for future study.
Amer Methqal Zeidan, MBBS, MHS, of Yale University and Yale Cancer Center, discusses phase III findings on the first-in-class telomerase inhibitor imetelstat, which was given to patients with heavily transfusion-dependent non-del(5q) lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes that are resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Imetelstat resulted in a significant and sustained red blood cell (RBC) transfusion independence in 40% of these heavily transfused patients. The response was also durable and accompanied by an impressive median hemoglobin rise of 3.6 g/dL, and seen in patients with and without ring sideroblasts. Importantly, reduced variant allele frequency was observed in the most commonly mutated myeloid genes which correlated with duration of transfusion independence and hemoglobin rise, therefore suggesting a disease-modifying potential of this agent (Abstract 7004).
Paula Aristizabal, MD, MAS, of the University of California, San Diego, and Rady Children’s Hospital, talks about using a health systems strengthening approach to improve leukemia care and survival in a public Mexican hospital in the region of the border between the United States and Mexico. The demonstrated increase in overall survival across a decade after implementation of the program seems to validate the use of such models, not only to improve clinical outcomes, but also to build sustainable hospital capacity, financially and organizationally (Abstract 1502).
Marie Plante, MD, of Canada’s Université Laval and the CHUQ Hotel Dieu de Québec, discusses phase III results from a study that compared radical hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection vs simple hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection in patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer. The pelvic recurrence rate at 3 years in the women who underwent simple hysterectomy is not inferior to those who had radical hysterectomy. In addition, fewer surgical complications and better quality of life were observed with simple hysterectomy (LBA5511).
Rami Manochakian, MD, of Mayo Clinic Florida, offers his perspective on the new phase III findings on osimertinib, a third-generation, central nervous system EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which demonstrated an unprecedented overall survival benefit for patients with EGFR-mutated, stage IB–IIIA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete tumor resection, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (Abstract LBA3).
Aaron T. Gerds, MD, of Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, talks about treating the anemia many patients with myelofibrosis experience because of JAK inhibitor therapy. The ACE-536-MF-001 study showed that luspatercept improved anemia and transfusion burden in this population, with a safety profile consistent with that in previous studies (Abstract 7016).