Shilpa Gupta, MD, on Urothelial Cancer: Defining Who Is 'Platinum-Ineligible'
2022 ASCO Annual Meeting
Shilpa Gupta, MD, of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, discusses an updated consensus definition for standard therapy and clinical trial eligibility for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer who are platinum-ineligible, criteria that are proposed to guide treatment recommendations for this population. This may be especially important now that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has restricted the use of first-line pembrolizumab to those who are considered platinum-ineligible (Abstract 4577).
Disclaimer: This video transcript has not been proofread or edited and may contain errors.
Frontline therapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer who are Cisplatin ineligible has continued to evolve. And the current standard of care is Gemcitabine and Carboplatin chemotherapy followed by durvalumab maintenance. In 2017, Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab were approved as single agents for this patient population. But then the label was restricted to patients who are Cisplatin ineligible with high PD-L1 expressing tumors, or those who are not eligible for any platinum. And now Pembrolizumab use is only restricted to patients who are platinum-ineligible. Back in 2019, we presented results from our survey for defining platinum-ineligibility by sending a survey out to around 60 US-based medical oncologists. And we presented a consensus definition at GU ASCO that year. And now with the changing landscape, we updated the survey and used the similar cohort of responders to provide a consensus definition update. So we ask questions like: what equal performance status would physicians use to deem someone platinum-ineligible? What creatinine clearance cutoff would they use? What peripheral neuropathy cutoff, heart failure, cutoff? And in any person with ECOG performance status two, what would be the creatinine clearance cutoff? And based on the majority of responses, we found that most physicians found that creatinine clearance less than 30 milliliters per minute, peripheral neuropathy greater than are equal to grade two, significant heart failure that is NYHA class three or higher, equal performance status greater than our equal to three, and in a patient with equal performance status two, creatinine clearance of less than 30 milliliters per minute. Those were the factors that would make them hesitant to use Carboplatin. So we proposed that if any one of these criteria are met, that patient can be deemed as platinum-ineligible and be a candidate for single agent immunotherapy. Otherwise, we offered Gemcitabine and Carboplatin followed by durvalumab maintenance. Notably age was not a cutoff for these patients based on our survey.
Courtney D. DiNardo, MD, MSCE, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Jorge E. Cortes, MD, of Georgia Cancer Center at Augusta University, discuss phase III results from the ASCEMBL trial, which showed that after more than 2 years of follow-up, asciminib continued to yield superior efficacy and better safety and tolerability vs bosutinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase. These results continue to support the use of this kinase inhibitor as a new CML therapy, says Dr. Cortes, with the potential to transform the standard of care (Abstract 7004).
Georgina V. Long, MD, PhD, of the Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, discusses findings from the NeoTrio trial on neoadjuvant pembrolizumab alone, in sequence with, or concurrent with dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with resectable BRAF-mutant stage III melanoma. The study may help clinicians determine the optimal combination of therapy (Abstract 9503).
Apar Kishor Ganti, MD, of the University of Nebraska Medical Center, discusses results from the CALGB 30610 study, which showed a similar clinical benefit for once- and twice-daily radiotherapy administered to patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. While both regimens were well tolerated, patients who received radiotherapy once daily had better quality-of-life scores at week 3 and slightly worse scores at week 12. Patients believed the once-daily regimen was more convenient (Abstract 8504).
Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Domenica Lorusso, MD, PhD, of Italy’s Gemelli University Hospital, discuss phase III data from the MITO23 trial on single-agent trabectedin vs clinician’s choice of chemotherapy in patients with recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers of BRCA-mutated or BRCAness phenotype. Although trabectedin has demonstrated antitumor activity in relapsed platinum-sensitive disease, it does not appear to improve survival outcomes when compared with standard chemotherapy in the BRCA-mutated population (Abstract LBA5504).
Jonathan E. Rosenberg, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Thomas Powles, MD, PhD, of Barts Health NHS Trust, Queen Mary University of London, discuss phase III findings from the KEYNOTE-426 trial, which appear to support the long-term benefit of pembrolizumab plus axitinib for first-line treatment of patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (Abstract 4513).