World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, MD, honored the late Henrietta Lacks with a WHO Director-General’s award, recognizing her world-changing legacy. Ms. Lacks, a Black American woman, died of cervical cancer 70 years ago, on October 4, 1951.
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, MD
While she sought treatment, researchers took biopsies from Mrs. Lacks’ body without her knowledge or consent. Her cells became the first “immortal” cell line and have allowed for incalculable scientific breakthroughs such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the polio vaccine, drugs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancers, and, most recently, critical COVID-19 research.
However, the global scientific community once hid Henrietta Lacks’ race and her real story, a historic wrong that WHO’s recognition seeks to heal. “In honoring Henrietta Lacks, WHO acknowledges the importance of reckoning with past scientific injustices and advancing racial equity in health and science,” said Dr. Ghebreyesus. “It’s also an opportunity to recognize women—particularly women of color—who have made incredible but often unseen contributions to medical science.”
The award was received at the WHO office in Geneva by Lawrence Lacks, Mrs. Lacks’ 87-year-old son. He is one of the last living relatives who personally knew her. Mr. Lacks was accompanied by several of Henrietta Lacks’ grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and other family members.
“We are moved to receive this historic recognition of my mother, Henrietta Lacks—honoring who she was as a remarkable woman and the lasting impact of her ‘HeLa’ cells. My mother’s contributions, once hidden, are now being rightfully honored for their global impact,” said Mr. Lacks. “My mother was a pioneer in life, giving back to her community, helping others live a better life, and caring for others. In death, she continues to help the world. Her legacy lives on in us, and we thank you for saying her name—Henrietta Lacks.”
Remarkable Contribution to Medicine
As a young mother, Henrietta Lacks and her husband were raising five children near Baltimore when she fell ill. She went to Johns Hopkins after experiencing extensive vaginal bleeding and was diagnosed with cervical cancer. Despite treatment, she died on October 4, 1951, at the age of 31.
During treatment, researchers took samples of her tumor. That HeLa cell line became a scientific breakthrough: the first immortal line of human cells to divide indefinitely in a laboratory. The cells were mass-produced—for profit and without recognition to her family. More than 50,000,000 metric tons of HeLa cells have been distributed around the world; the cells have been used in over 75,000 studies.
In addition to the HPV vaccine, HeLa cells allowed for the development of the polio vaccine; drugs for HIV/AIDS, hemophilia, leukemia, and Parkinson’s disease; breakthroughs in reproductive health, including in vitrofertilization; research on chromosomal conditions, cancer, gene mapping, and precision medicine; and are used in studies responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Today, women of color continue to be disproportionately affected by cervical cancer, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the many fault lines where health inequities persist among marginalized communities around the world. Studies in various countries consistently document that Black women are dying of cervical cancer at several times the rate of White women, and 19 of the 20 countries with the highest cervical cancer burdens are in Africa.
The Lacks family’s discussions with WHO especially focused on the organization’s ambitious campaign to eliminate cervical cancer. The past year, which marked the 100th anniversary of -Henrietta Lacks’ birth, coincides with the inaugural year of WHO’s global strategy to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer. This historic campaign marks the first time ever that all WHO member states have collectively resolved to eliminate a cancer.
WHO is also advocating for equity in access to the HPV vaccine, which protects against a range of cancers, including cervical cancer. Despite having been prequalified by WHO more than 12 years ago, supply constraints and high prices still prevent adequate doses from reaching girls in low- and middle-income countries. As of 2020, less than 25% of low-income countries and less than 30% of lower middle–income countries had access to the HPV vaccine through their national immunization programs, compared with more than 85% of high-income countries.
Dr. Princess Nothemba (Nono) Simelela
“It is unacceptable that access to the life-saving HPV vaccine can be shaped by your race, ethnicity, or where you happen to be born,” said Dr. Princess Nothemba (Nono) Simelela, Assistant Director-General for Strategic Priorities and Special Advisor to the Director General. “The HPV vaccine was developed using Henrietta Lacks’ cells. Although the cells were taken without her consent and without her knowledge, she has left behind a legacy that could potentially save millions of lives. We owe it to her and her family to achieve equitable access to this groundbreaking vaccine.”
“Through HELA100: The Henrietta Lacks Initiative, my family stands in solidarity with WHO and our sisters around the world to ensure that no other wife, mother, or sister dies needlessly from cervical cancer,” said Victoria Baptiste, Henrietta Lacks’ great-granddaughter. “As a registered nurse, I am proud to honor my great-grandmother’s legacy by advocating to ensure equitable access to the breakthroughs that her HeLa cells advanced, such as the HPV vaccine. It is only fitting that as we commemorate the 70th anniversary of Henrietta Lacks’ HeLa cells and her untimely passing, we build upon her legacy by ensuring equitable access to advances in cancer prevention and treatment for all people.”
“Though her life was cut short, Henrietta Lacks’ contributions to medicine have led to remarkable scientific breakthroughs, saving countless lives and bringing us closer to eliminating cervical cancer,” said Dr. Senait Fisseha, Co-Chair of the Director-General’s expert advisory group on cervical cancer elimination. “Her story is also a clear example of how Black women have long been overlooked in health care and still are today. I applaud the WHO for recognizing her, a vital step in acknowledging the incredible impact she’s had on science and honoring her legacy in advancing health justice for people around the world.”
“The fight to eliminate cervical cancer is part of the larger fight for human rights,” said Dr. Groesbeck Parham, who participated in the civil rights movement as a teenager in Birmingham, Alabama, and is now Clinical Expert for WHO’s cervical cancer elimination initiative and Co-Chair of the Director-General’s expert advisory group. “Through her immortal cells, Mrs. Henrietta Lacks speaks to us, also calling our attention to the millions of young women and mothers in low-income countries who still continue to die from cervical cancer because they cannot access and afford to purchase the life-saving medicines, technologies, and medical procedures that are readily available in high-income countries.”