In a systematic review and network meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Mohamad Bassam Sonbol, MD, of Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, and colleagues, found that atezolizumab plus bevacizumab outperformed other regimens in the first-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified regorafenib and cabozantinib as preferred treatments in refractory disease.1
As stated by the investigators: “The treatment landscape for advanced … HCC has recently changed and become relatively confusing. Head-to-head comparisons between most of the available agents have not been performed and are less likely to be examined in a prospective fashion in the future. Therefore, a network meta-analysis … is helpful to compare different agents from across different trials.”
Mohamad Bassam Sonbol, MD
The study involved database searches through March 2020 to identify phase III trials published in English that evaluated different VEGF inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, or their combinations in the first-line or refractory setting in advanced HCC. The primary outcomes of interest were overall survival and progression-free survival. An additional analysis was performed for overall and progression-free survival in patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels ≥ 400 ng/mL. In addition to the calculation of hazard ratios for outcomes of pairwise comparisons between regimens, P scores were calculated to rank treatments, with higher P scores indicating better efficacy.
Overall, 14 trials were identified for inclusion, including 8 in the first-line setting and 6 in the second-line setting. One in the second-line setting was performed exclusively in patients with AFP levels ≥ 400 ng/mL. This trial was included only in the AFP subgroup analysis, with the five other second-line trials included in the main analysis.
The eight trials in the first-line setting included a total of 6,290 patients. Among these studies, two compared sorafenib vs placebo and six compared either VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors (linifanib, sunitinib, brivanib, and lenvatinib), nivolumab, or atezolizumab/bevacizumab vs sorafenib. The five trials in the second-line analysis included a total of 2,653 patients; these trials compared VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors (cabozantinib, regorafenib, or brivanib), ramucirumab, or pembrolizumab vs placebo. In addition to the second-line trial comparing ramucirumab vs placebo only in patients with AFP levels ≥ 400 ng/mL, three other second-line trials reported outcomes in subgroups of patients with AFP levels ≥ 400 ng/mL, with a total population of 1,084 included in the analysis. The three additional trials compared ramucirumab, regorafenib, or cabozantinib vs placebo.
In the network meta-analysis, atezolizumab/bevacizumab exhibited a significant overall survival benefit compared with all other treatments, including lenvatinib (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44–0.89), nivolumab (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48–0.98), sorafenib (HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.42–0.80), linifanib (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39–0.78), brivanib (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.38–0.76), and sunitinib (HR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.32–0.63).
Atezolizumab/bevacizumab exhibited a significant progression-free survival benefit vs sorafenib (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.46–0.75), linifanib (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55–0.97), and sunitinib (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.40–0.69). Lenvatinib exhibited a significant benefit vs sorafenib (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.57–0.77) and sunitinib (HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.48–0.72). The hazard ratio for atezolizumab/bevacizumab vs lenvatinib was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.67–1.19).
Overall, atezolizumab/bevacizumab ranked highest in efficacy for overall survival (P score = 99.65%) and progression-free survival (P score = 94.16%). Nivolumab ranked second in overall survival (P score = 81.55%), and lenvatinib ranked second in progression-free survival (P score = 79.71%).
In the refractory setting, regorafenib (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.37–0.57), cabozantinib (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.37–0.53), pembrolizumab (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.57–0.90), and ramucirumab (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.52–0.74) all exhibited a significant progression-free survival benefit vs placebo.
In addition, both cabozantinib (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55–0.92; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.46–0.82) and regorafenib (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56–0.98; HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.47–0.87) exhibited a significant progression-free survival benefit vs ramucirumab and pembrolizumab, respectively. A significant overall survival benefit vs placebo was observed only for regorafenib (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.51–0.75) and cabozantinib (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63–0.92).
Cabozantinib (P score = 90.45%) and regorafenib (P score = 83.93%) had the highest rankings for progression-free survival, and regorafenib (P score = 96.73%) and cabozantinib (P score = 66.2%) had the highest rankings for overall survival.
Subgroup With AFP Levels ≥ 400 ng/mL
Regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab each exhibited progression-free survival and overall survival benefits vs placebo. Hazard ratios for progression-free survival vs placebo were 0.53 (95% CI = 0.29–0.97), 0.42 (95% CI = 0.23–0.77), and 0.56 (95% CI = 0.37–0.87), respectively. Hazard ratios for overall survival vs placebo were 0.68 (95% CI = 0.50–0.92), 0.71 (95% CI= 0.54–0.94), and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.56–0.84), respectively. No significant differences in progression-free or overall survival were observed in pairwise comparisons between the active drugs.
The investigators concluded: “This systematic review and [network meta-analysis] of 14 trials found that atezolizumab and bevacizumab in combination is now considered the standard of care in the first-line setting in patients with advanced HCC. Regorafenib and cabozantinib are preferred options in refractory patients, with ramucirumab as an additional option in those with levels of AFP of 400 ng/mL or higher. Future trials should focus on other potential combinations and best treatment strategy in patients with prior [VEGF inhibitor/immune checkpoint inhibitor] exposure.”
DISCLOSURE: Dr. Sonbol reported no conflicts of interest.
1. Sonbol MB, Riaz IB, Naqvi SAA, et al: Systemic therapy and sequencing options in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. October 22, 2020 (early release online).