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hepatobiliary cancer

Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy vs Surgery Alone for Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Tumor Thrombus

In a Chinese study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wei et al found that neoadjuvant three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy improved outcomes vs hepatectomy alone in patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus. Study Details In the multicenter...

hepatobiliary cancer

Ivosidenib for Advanced IDH1-Mutated Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

Ivosidenib, a small-molecule inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1), is currently being studied in a phase I clinical trial assessing its efficacy in patients with IDH1-mutated solid tumors. In a report published by Lowery et al in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, researchers...

hepatobiliary cancer

KIR-HLA System Gene Loci Imbalance and Biliary Tract Cancer

Patients with biliary tract cancer have an altered genetic architecture in some immune system receptor systems, according to research published by Cornillet et al in Gastroenterology. Research Findings Researchers at Karolinska Institutet investigated the genetic architecture of two large genetic ...

hepatobiliary cancer

Link Between Poor Oral Health and Increased Liver Cancer Risk

Poor oral health is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, according to new research published by Jordão et al in the United European Gastroenterology Journal. Methods “Poor oral health has been associated with the risk of several chronic diseases, such as...

hepatobiliary cancer
pancreatic cancer

Serum MicroRNAs for the Diagnosis of Pancreatic and Biliary Tract Cancers

Diagnosis of pancreatic and biliary tract cancers is complex and challenging due to the lack of symptoms and/or the difficulty of direct, invasive, and imaging-based methods of diagnosis. In an effort to develop better diagnostic markers for these diseases, Kim et al analyzed the genome-wide...

colorectal cancer
hepatobiliary cancer
myelodysplastic syndromes
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Designations and Reviews in Myelofibrosis, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Biliary Tract Cancer, and T-Cell Receptor Therapy

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation for momelotinib in myelofibrosis, granted Priority Review to a biologics license application for luspatercept in myelodyslastic syndromes and beta-thalassemia, granted Orphan Drug designation for a new chemical...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

Early-Stage Study of Nivolumab Alone or in Combination With Cisplatin/Gemcitabine in Biliary Tract Cancer

In a Japanese phase I trial reported by Ueno et al in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, researchers found nivolumab showed activity and had a manageable safety profile in patients with unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer. Methods The open-label phase I trial was conducted...

hepatobiliary cancer

Rate of 'Textbook Outcomes' in Curative-Intent Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a multi-institutional international analysis reported in JAMA Surgery, Merath et al found that a textbook outcome was achieved in a minority of patients undergoing curative-intent resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details The study involved data on 687 patients from 15 major...

hepatobiliary cancer

ARRS 2019: Percutaneous Liver Ablation Intervention vs Surgery for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Compared to surgery, percutaneous liver ablation interventions in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were associated with lower in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs, according to a study presented by Sodagari et al at the American Roentgen Ray Society...

hepatobiliary cancer

ARRS 2019: Arterial-Phase Hyperenhancement for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated With SBRT

Although arterial-phase hyperenhancement is a key feature of untreated or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, standard response assessment such as modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) should be used with caution, particularly in the early phases after stereotactic body...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Ramucirumab for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

On May 10, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ramucirumab (Cyramza) as a single agent for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who have an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level ≥ 400 ng/mL and have been previously treated with sorafenib. REACH-2 Trial Approval was based on the...

hepatobiliary cancer

Minimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Pediatric Hepatoblastoma Resected at Diagnosis

In an analysis from the Children’s Oncology Group phase III AHEP0731 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Katzenstein et al found that minimal adjuvant chemotherapy with two cycles of cisplatin, fluorouracil, and vincristine was associated with disease control in pediatric patients with...

hepatobiliary cancer

Addition of Nab-paclitaxel to Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancers

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Shroff and colleagues found that the addition of nab-paclitaxel to standard gemcitabine and cisplatin resulted in promising outcomes in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancers. The study included 60 patients...

hepatobiliary cancer
issues in oncology

Trends in Liver Cancer Death Rates by Educational Attainment

A new study has found that rising rates of liver cancer deaths in the United States have largely been confined to individuals who have received less education—especially among men. Published by Ma et al in Cancer, the findings emphasize the need for enhanced efforts to address the growing...

hepatobiliary cancer

Capecitabine vs Observation Following Surgery for Resected Biliary Tract Cancer

Watch John Marshall, MD, and BILCAP first author John Neil Primrose, PhD, MBBS, discuss the trial at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting. In the phase III BILCAP trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Primrose and colleagues found evidence that adjuvant capecitabine may improve overall...

hepatobiliary cancer

Demographic Factors Increasing Risk of Liver Cancer Development in Patients With Fatty Liver Disease

A new study published by Zarrinpar et al in Liver International has found that elderly, diabetic, and Hispanic patients with steatohepatitis—fatty liver disease—may have a higher risk of developing liver cancer. Ali Zarrinpar, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Surgery at the...

hepatobiliary cancer

Adjuvant Gemcitabine Plus Oxaliplatin vs Surveillance in Resected Biliary Tract Cancer

In a French phase III trial (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Edeline et al found that adjuvant gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX) did not significantly improve relapse-free survival vs surveillance following resection for localized biliary tract...

hepatobiliary cancer

Ramucirumab in Sorafenib-Pretreated Patients With Advanced HCC and Increased α-Fetoprotein

In the phase III REACH-2 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Zhu et al found that ramucirumab improved overall and progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increased α-fetoprotein levels who had previously received sorafenib. Study...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

2019 GI Cancers Symposium: Nivolumab vs Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Anti–programmed cell death protein 1 and anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4 antibodies have shown activity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on these earlier findings, researchers sought to examine the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of perioperative treatment...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Cabozantinib for Previously Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

On January 14, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx) tablets for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have been previously treated with sorafenib. The FDA’s approval of cabozantinib was based on results from the phase III CELESTIAL trial....

hepatobiliary cancer
issues in oncology

Role of Donor Race in Liver Transplant Outcomes in African American Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Among African American adults undergoing liver transplant to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, patients whose organ donor was also African American lived significantly longer than those with a racially unmatched donor, report authors of a new study using national data. Their findings were published...

hepatobiliary cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

EORTC-NCI-AACR: Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib Active in Some BRAF V600E–Mutated Gastrointestinal Cancers

In a late-breaking presentation at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, Zev Wainberg, MD, reported on results from a phase II international clinical trial of dabrafenib (Tafinlar) plus trametinib (Mekinist), which showed some activity in 36 patients ...

hepatobiliary cancer

Risk Factors for Late Recurrence After Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a Chinese retrospective study reported in JAMA Surgery, Xu et al found that risk of late recurrence (> 2 years) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative liver resection was associated with male sex, presence of cirrhosis, and aggressive characteristics of the initial HCC. The study...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Previously Treated With a Kinase Inhibitor

On November 9, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have been previously treated with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib. KEYNOTE-224 Approval was based on KEYNOTE-224, a single-arm,...

hepatobiliary cancer

Regular Aspirin Use and Reduction in Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A pooled analysis of two large U.S. prospective cohort studies reported in JAMA Oncology by Simon et al indicates that regular use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with an apparent dose- and duration-dependent effect. Study Details...

hepatobiliary cancer

Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Entecavir vs Tenofovir Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B

In a Korean nationwide cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Choi et al found that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appeared to be more common with first-line entecavir vs tenofovir treatment for chronic hepatitis B. The study involved data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service...

hepatobiliary cancer

First-Line Nab-Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine in Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Sahai et al found that the first-line combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine—though it did not meet the progression-free survival primary endpoint—may constitute a treatment option in advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details In...

hepatobiliary cancer

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease May Be Risk Factor for Liver Cancer

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common disease, and with the incidence of liver cancer rising across the country, little has been understood about the link between it and hepatocellular carcinoma. To establish a better understanding of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma risk and...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Lenvatinib for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved lenvatinib capsules (Lenvima) for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). REFLECT Trial Approval was based on the international, multicenter, randomized, open-label, noninferiority REFLECT trial ...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab Combination as First-Line Treatment for Advanced or Metastatic HCC

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for atezolizumab (Tecentriq) in combination with bevacizumab (Avastin) as a first-line treatment for people with advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver...

colorectal cancer
kidney cancer
hepatobiliary cancer
lung cancer
pancreatic cancer
issues in oncology
bladder cancer

Large Disparities in Cancer Mortality Rates Found Among Different Racial/Ethnic Populations in New York State

According to the American Cancer Society, cancer is the leading cause of death for Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States. However, their cancer burden is less than that of non-Hispanic whites and especially non-Hispanic blacks, who bear the most disproportionate share of the...

hepatobiliary cancer

Cabozantinib vs Placebo in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Previously Treated With Sorafenib

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Abou-Alfa and colleagues, the second interim analysis of the phase III CELESTIAL trial has shown a significant improvement in overall and progression-free survival with cabozantinib (Cabometyx) vs placebo in patients with sorafenib...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Grants Priority Review to sBLA for Pembrolizumab in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently accepted and granted priority review for a new supplemental biologics license application (sBLA) seeking approval for pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as a second-line treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This sBLA, which is...

hepatobiliary cancer

Sodium Thiosulfate to Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss in Pediatric Standard-Risk Hepatoblastoma

In a phase III International Liver Tumor Strategy Group trial (SIOPEL 6) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Brock et al found that sodium thiosulfate reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss in pediatric patients with standard-risk hepatoblastoma. Study Details The trial enrolled a...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-224: Pembrolizumab in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pretreated With Sorafenib

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Zhu et al, the phase II KEYNOTE-224 study has shown activity of pembrolizumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pretreated with sorafenib. Study Details In the study, 104 eligible patients who were intolerant of or progressed on sorafenib were...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Accepts Supplemental New Drug Application for Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

On May 29, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted for filing the supplemental new drug application (sNDA) for cabozantinib (Cabometyx) tablets as a treatment for patients with previously treated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The filing has been assigned a Prescription Drug...

hepatobiliary cancer

Tivantinib in Second-Line Treatment of MET-High Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In the phase III METIV-HCC trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Rimassa et al found no improvement in overall survival with the investigational MET inhibitor tivantinib vs placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with high MET expression previously treated with sorafenib...

hepatobiliary cancer

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Liver Cancer Incidence in California

In a study among California residents reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Pham et al found that those designated as Asian/Pacific Islanders were at elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vs other racial/ethnic groups, with the highest risk observed among Southeast...

hepatobiliary cancer

Phase III REACH-2 Study in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Meets Overall Survival Endpoint

Topline results from the phase III REACH-2 study of ramucirumab (Cyramza) as a single agent in the second-line treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were recently announced. The trial met its primary endpoint of overall survival as well as the secondary endpoint of...

hepatobiliary cancer

Lenvatinib Mesylate Approved in Japan for Unresectable HCC

On March 23, the multiple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor lenvatinib mesylate (Lenvima) was approved in Japan for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is the first approval worldwide of lenvatinib mesylate for the indication of unresectable HCC and the first new systemic therapy to...

hepatobiliary cancer

Radioembolization vs Sorafenib in Asia-Pacific Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In an investigator-initiated phase III SIRveNIB trial in Asia-Pacific patients reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chow et al found no difference in overall survival with selective internal radiation therapy, or radioembolization, vs sorafenib (Nexavar) in patients with unresectable...

hepatobiliary cancer

Combining Ultrasound Imaging With Alpha-Fetoprotein Test May Boost Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Combining ultrasound imaging with a blood test for high alpha fetoprotein levels may improve detection of early-stage liver cancer by as much as 40%, researchers at UT Southwestern’s Simmons Cancer Center found. Their findings were presented by Tzartzeva et al in Gastroenterology....

hepatobiliary cancer

First-Line Lenvatinib vs Sorafenib in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a phase III noninferiority trial reported in The Lancet, Kudo et al found that first-line lenvatinib was noninferior to sorafenib in overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Study Details In the open-label trial, 954 patients from 154 sites in 20 countries in...

breast cancer
colorectal cancer
gynecologic cancers
hepatobiliary cancer
lung cancer
pancreatic cancer
gastroesophageal cancer

Detecting and Localizing Eight Cancer Types With One Multianalyte Blood Test

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers developed a single blood test that screens for eight common cancer types and also helps identify the location of the cancer. The test, called CancerSEEK, is a unique noninvasive, multianalyte test that simultaneously evaluates levels of eight cancer...

hepatobiliary cancer

2018 GI CANCERS SYMPOSIUM: First-Line Lenvatinib vs Sorafenib in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

The results of an analysis of the phase III REFLECT trial of lenvatinib mesylate (Lenvima) vs sorafenib (Nexavar) as first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma based on independent imaging review were presented during the 2018 Gastrointestinal (GI) Cancers Symposium (Abstract...

hepatobiliary cancer

FGFR Kinase Inhibitor in FGFR-Altered Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Javle et al found that the oral pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor BGJ398 was active in FGFR-altered advanced cholangiocarcinoma. It is estimated that FGFR2 fusions/translocations are present in 13% to 17%...

hepatobiliary cancer

Internal Radiotherapy vs Kinase Inhibitor in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A French phase III trial has shown no significant survival difference between selective internal radiotherapy with yttrium-90 resin microspheres vs sorafenib (Nexavar) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings were reported by Vilgrain et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study...

hepatobiliary cancer

The Liver Meeting: Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk for Hepatitis B Virus–Related Liver Cancer

A new study presented at The Liver Meeting, held by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, found that daily aspirin therapy was significantly associated with a reduced risk in hepatitis B virus (HBV)–related liver cancer (Abstract 223). According to AASLD’s...

hepatobiliary cancer

The Liver Meeting: Direct-Acting Antiviral Medications as Hepatitis C Treatment May Reduce Risk of Liver Cancer

A new study presented at The Liver Meeting—held by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases—found that eradication of the hepatitis C virus induced by direct-acting antiviral medications is associated with a 71% reduction in the risk of liver cancer (Abstract 142)....

hepatobiliary cancer

CELESTIAL Trial: Cabozantinib Meets Primary Endpoint of Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

On October 16, Exelixis announced that its global phase III CELESTIAL trial met its primary endpoint of overall survival, with cabozantinib (Cabometyx) providing a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in median overall survival compared to placebo in patients with...

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