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cns cancers

Clinically Distinct Subgroup of Childhood Secondary High-Grade Glioma Defined by BRAF Mutation and CDKN2A Deletion

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Mistry et al found that presence of BRAF V600E mutation and CDKN2A deletion defined a clinically distinct subtype of pediatric secondary high-grade glioma. BRAF V600E mutation was associated with a prolonged time to transformation. Study...

cns cancers

Clinical Trial Suggests Temozolomide-Based Chemoradiation Is Best for Low-Grade Brain Tumors

New clinical trial findings provide further evidence that combining chemotherapy with radiation therapy is the best treatment for people with a low-grade form of brain cancer. The findings come from a phase II study co-led by a researcher at Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer...

cns cancers

Similar Local Recurrence Rates But Increased Distant Metastases With Adjuvant Localized vs Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases

In patients who had undergone surgery for brain metastases, the rate of recurrence at the resected site was similar between patients who received adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy vs those who underwent adjuvant localized radiotherapy, according to a retrospective study by Hsieh et al in the...

cns cancers

FDA Approves Dinutuximab Combination for Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved dinutuximab (Unituxin) as part of first-line therapy for pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Dinutuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface of neuroblastoma cells, is being approved for use as part of a...

cns cancers

Preclinical Study Shows Promise for the Development of Personalized Cellular Therapy for Brain Cancer

Immune cells engineered to seek out and attack a type of deadly brain cancer were found to be safe and effective at controlling tumor growth in mice that were treated with these modified cells, according a team from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Novartis...

cns cancers

Study Finds Improved Survival for Young Patients With Brain Metastases Who Receive Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone

Cancer patients with limited brain metastases (one to four tumors) who are 50 years old and younger should receive stereotactic radiosurgery without whole-brain radiotherapy, according to a study by Saghal et al in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics....

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Scientists Identify Genetic Variations Linked to Treatment-Related Hearing Loss in Young Patients With Cancer

Using a genome-wide associated study approach, researchers have identified inherited genetic variations in the ACYP2 gene that were linked to as much as a fourfold greater risk of rapid hearing loss in young patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. The study...

lung cancer
cns cancers

Crizotinib Produces Systemic and Intracranial Disease Control in Patients With Advanced ALK-Rearranged NSCLC and Brain Metastases

In a retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Costa et al found that crizotinib (Xalkori) treatment resulted in high systemic and intracranial disease control rates in patients with ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had asymptomatic brain...

cns cancers
pancreatic cancer
issues in oncology
sarcoma

Researchers Identify Potential Treatment Targeting Proliferation Pathway in Some Aggressive Tumors

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center and Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified a potential treatment targeting a pathway by which several aggressive tumors maintain their ability to proliferate, according to a study by Flynn et al published...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Long-Term Use of Hormonal Contraceptives Could Lead to Increased Risk of Brain Tumors

Taking a hormonal contraceptive for at least 5 years is associated with a possible increase in women’s risk of developing a glioma, according to a study by Andersen et al published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Study Details While little is known about the causes of...

issues in oncology
cns cancers
cns cancers
pancreatic cancer
issues in oncology
solid tumors

ATRX Mutation Linked to Brain and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors May Be Biomarker for Rare Adrenal Tumors

A somatic mutation in the ATRX gene has recently been identified as a potential molecular marker for gliomas, neuroblastomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Now, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found that the same mutated gene may serve...

cns cancers

FDA Approves Lanreotide Injection for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved lanreotide (Somatuline Depot Injection) for the treatment of patients with unresectable, well or moderately differentiated, locally advanced or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Lanreotide was previously approved for...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Germline SUFU Mutations Cause Gorlin Syndrome and Increase Risk for Childhood Medulloblastoma

In a study to identify causative mutations in patients with Gorlin syndrome without PTCH1 mutations, Smith et al found that germline mutations in SUFU were associated with Gorlin syndrome and with increased likelihood of Gorlin syndrome–associated childhood medulloblastoma. The study is...

cns cancers

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors May Work in Brain Cancers

New evidence that immune checkpoint inhibitors may work in glioblastoma and brain metastases was presented today at the ESMO Symposium on Immuno-Oncology 2014 in Geneva (Abstract 1O). The novel research shows that brain metastases of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, providing an immunoactive...

lung cancer
cns cancers

Molecular Tumor Markers Could Reveal New Therapeutic Targets for Lung Cancer Treatment

Analysis of 607 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors and neuroendocrine tumors identified common molecular markers among both groups that could reveal new therapeutic targets for patients with similar types of lung cancer, according to research presented at the 2014 Chicago Multidisciplinary...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to DNX-2401 for Malignant Glioma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug Designation to DNAtrix’s DNX-2401, a conditionally-replicative oncolytic adenovirus for malignant glioma. Glioma is the most common form of primary brain cancer, the treatment of which remains a significant unmet medical...

cns cancers
pancreatic cancer

ESMO 2014: Everolimus Improves Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

In a phase III trial, treatment with everolimus (Afinitor) resulted in a median overall survival of over 3 and a half years in patients with well-differentiated and progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, representing what the study authors called a "clinically important" although not...

cns cancers
lung cancer
gynecologic cancer

Aldoxorubicin Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designations for Glioblastoma, Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Ovarian Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug Designations to aldoxorubicin in three indications: glioblastoma multiforme, small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Aldoxorubicin combines doxorubicin with a novel single-molecule linker that binds directly and...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to Bivalent Vaccine for Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation to MabVax Therapeutics’ vaccine for the treatment of relapsed or recurrent high-risk neuroblastoma in remission or with limited residual disease after best available treatment. The bivalent vaccine is intended to...

cns cancers

Pilot Study Evaluates Concurrent Use of Sunitinib and Radiation Therapy in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

The combination of continuous daily-dosed sunitinib (Sutent) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy produced acceptable toxicity and “encouraging” 6-month progression-free survival in previously irradiated patients with recurrent high-grade glioma, according to the results...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Priority Review to Lanreotide Injection for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted and granted priority review to Ipsen’s supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the somatostatin analog lanreotide (Somatuline Depot) 120 mg injection in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The FDA...

cns cancers

No Benefit of Adding Cilengitide in Glioblastoma With Methylated MGMT Promoter

In the phase III CENTRIC EORTC 26071-22072 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Stupp et al found that adding the selective αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide to standard temozolomide chemoradiotherapy produced no survival benefit in newly diagnosed glioblastoma...

cns cancers

Early Study Identifies Tumor-Suppressor Gene, Potential Therapy for Medulloblastoma

An international, multi-institutional research group led by scientists at the Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute (CBDI) at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center has identified a novel molecular pathway that causes an aggressive form of medulloblastoma, The study, reported by He et al ...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Study Detects New ALK Mutations at Neuroblastoma Relapse

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Schleiermacher et al found ALK mutations at relapse of neuroblastoma that were not present at diagnosis. They also found that subclonal mutations may be present at diagnosis with clonal expansion observed at relapse. The study involved...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Successful Vemurafenib Treatment of Progressive BRAF V600E–Mutated Anaplastic Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma

The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (Zelboraf) is approved for treatment of BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. There are reports indicating that vemurafenib may be active in the treatment of intracranial neoplasms with BRAF mutations. As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lee et al from...

cns cancers

Improvements in Overall Survival in Trilateral Retinoblastoma Due to Improved Chemotherapy and Earlier Detection

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, de Jong et al found a dramatic improvement in overall survival among children with trilateral retinoblastoma since 1995, reflecting increased use of conventional and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue in pineal and...

cns cancers

Investigational Compound ABT-414 Receives Orphan Drug Designation for Glioblastoma Multiforme

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted orphan drug designation to AbbVie’s investigational compound ABT-414, which is being evaluated for safety and efficacy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. ABT-414 is an investigational anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)...

cns cancers

Dutch Phase II Study Supports Phase III Evaluation of Bevacizumab Plus Lomustine, but Not Bevacizumab Alone, in Recurrent Glioblastoma

Bevacizumab (Avastin) is frequently used in patients with recurrent glioblastoma, although it is unclear whether responses observed with such treatment result in improved overall survival. In the phase II Dutch BELOB study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Taal et al found that overall survival...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Two Common Gene Variants Associated With Longer Telomere Length May Increase the Risk of Glioma

Two common gene variants that lead to longer telomere length may increase the risk of glioma, according to the results of a study presented by Walsh et al in Nature Genetics. This finding suggests that telomere length may prove to be a promising epidemiologic risk factor for cancer. It is well...

cns cancers

Lanreotide Significantly Prolongs Progression-Free Survival in Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Although somatostatin analogs are commonly used to treat symptoms associated with hormone hypersecretion in neuroendocrine tumors, data on their antitumor effects are limited. In the phase III CLARINET trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Caplin et al found that somatostatin...

cns cancers

Brain Tumor Invasion Along Blood Vessels May Lead to New Cancer Treatments, Preclinical Study Suggests

Invading glioblastoma cells may hijack cerebral blood vessels during early stages of disease progression and damage the brain’s protective barrier, preclinical study published in Nature Communications indicated. The finding by Watkins et al could ultimately lead to new ways to bring about the ...

cns cancers

Preclinical Study Reveals Heparan Sulfate Suppresses Growth of Neuroblastoma

A heparin derivative differentiated cancer cells and caused neuroblastomas to regress without causing severe bleeding, according to the findings of a preclinical study presented in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Knelson et al identified novel roles for heparan sulfate proteoglycans in...

cns cancers

Glioma-Associated Antigen Peptide Vaccination Produces Antigen-Specific T-Cell Response and Clinical Activity in Children With High-Grade Gliomas

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pollack et al found antigen-specific immune responses and evidence of clinical activity with glioma-associated antigen (GAA) peptide vaccination in children with newly diagnosed malignant brainstem and nonbrainstem gliomas. Study Details In ...

cns cancers

Brain Tumor Risk Greater in Women Who Begin Menstruation at Older Age, Study Reports

Women who begin menstruation at an older age have a significantly increased risk of developing a brain tumor, a Moffitt Cancer Center study shows. The results are part of a large multicenter study to determine potential risk factors associated with the development of glioma and meningioma. The...

cns cancers

ASCO 2014: Addition of Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Low-Grade Glioma

In a long-term follow-up analysis of RTOG 9802, the addition of PCV (procarbazine [Matulane], lomustine [CeeNu], and vincristine) to radiotherapy prolonged both progression-free survival and overall survival in adult patients with low-grade glioma. The findings were reported at the 2014 ASCO Annual ...

cns cancers

Phase I Study Finds Novel Antibody Shows Promise in Children With Advanced Neuroblastoma

Researchers from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital conducted a phase I study of hu14.18K322A, an experimental monoclonal antibody genetically engineered at the hospital, in 38 children with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma. The patients received escalating doses of hu14.18K322A...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Gene Sequencing Project Discovers Mutations Tied to High-Grade Gliomas in Young Children

The St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has identified new mutations in pediatric high-grade gliomas. The findings by Wu et al were published in Nature Genetics and may lead to improved outcomes for children with these brain...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Researchers Identify Transcription Factors Distinguishing Glioblastoma Stem Cells

The activity of four transcription factors appears to distinguish the small proportion of glioblastoma cells responsible for the aggressiveness and treatment resistance of the deadly brain tumor. The findings by Suvà et al, published online in Cell, support the importance of epigenetics in...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Deep, Integrated Genomic Analysis Reclassifies Lower-Grade Brain Tumors

Using comprehensive genomic analysis, researchers have sorted low-grade brain tumors into three categories, one of which has the molecular hallmarks and shortened survival of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal of brain tumors. The findings were reported at the American Association for Cancer...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

18F-FDOPA PET Predicts Good Prognosis as Soon as 2 Weeks After Start of Antiangiogenic Therapy in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Schwarzenberg et al found 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) positron-emission tomography (PET) metabolic tumor volume values at 2 weeks after the start of bevacizumab (Avastin) were highly predictive of outcome in patients with ...

cns cancers

Metastatic Neuroblastoma Confined to Distant Lymph Nodes Associated With Better Survival Compared With Other Stage IV Disease

The pattern of metastatic spread is not incorporated into current risk-stratification systems for neuroblastoma. In a retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Morgenstern et al found that patients with neuroblastoma with metastatic disease limited to distant lymph nodes...

cns cancers

Pemetrexed and Gemcitabine Show Promise Against Aggressive Childhood Brain Tumor

The quest to improve survival of children with a high-risk brain tumor has led investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital to two drugs already used to treat adults with breast, pancreatic, lung, and other cancers. The study by Morfouace at al was published today in Cancer Cell....

issues in oncology
cns cancers
issues in oncology

IDH1-Mutant Malignant Astrocytomas May Be More Amenable to Surgical Resection and Linked to Better Prognosis

IDH1 mutation in patients with malignant astrocytomas may serve as a predictive molecular biomarker to guide aggressive surgical resection, according to the results of a study reported by Beiko et al in Neuro-Oncology. Maximal surgical resection may contribute a survival benefit in those who have...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

Blood Test Could Improve Treatment for Children With Late-Stage Neuroblastoma

Research by Viprey et al has found that the detection of neuroblastoma mRNAs in peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates from children diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma are independent predictors of event-free survival and overall survival. Their findings could help identify children with...

cns cancers

Study Identifies Possible New Target for Future Glioblastoma Drugs

A molecule in cells that shuts down the expression of genes might be a promising target for new drugs designed to treat the most frequent and lethal form of brain cancer, according to a new study by Yan et al published in Cancer Research. The findings show that high levels of the enzyme PRMT5...

cns cancers

Bevacizumab Added to Radiotherapy/Temozolomide Improves Progression-Free Survival but Not Overall Survival in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

In a double-blind phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Chinot et al assessed adding bevacizumab (Avastin) to radiotherapy and temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. This was the second of two similar studies published in the February 20 issue of...

cns cancers

Adding Bevacizumab to Radiotherapy and Temozolomide Does Not Improve Overall Survival in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

In a double-blind phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Gilbert et al assessed adding bevacizumab (Avastin), which is currently approved in recurrent glioblastoma, to radiotherapy and temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The addition of bevacizumab...

cns cancers

Study Identifies Common Driver of a Childhood Brain Tumor

The St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has identified the most common genetic alteration ever reported in the brain tumor ependymoma and evidence that the alteration drives tumor development. The findings were published online in...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Small Panel of FISH Cytogenetic Markers Distinguishes Risk in Medulloblastoma Subgroups

Among the four major molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma, WNT tumors are associated with excellent prognosis, whereas SHH and Group 4 tumors are associated with intermediate and Group 3 tumors with poor prognosis. In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shih et al identified a...

cns cancers

Optimized Radiation Treatment Schedule for Glioblastoma May Extend Survival

An altered radiation treatment schedule for glioblastoma, the most common and lethal form of brain cancer, extended the survival period of mice with the disease, according to a new study published in Cell. Because the research involved mice, the study does not recommend a specific new schedule for...

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