cns cancers

Resistance to Anti-VEGF Drugs in Glioblastoma Is Linked to Mesenchymal Transition 

Antiangiogenic therapy reduces tumor vascular permeability and delays tumor progression but may ultimately promote an aggressive treatment-resistant phenotype. In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Piao and colleagues attempted to identify factors responsible for glioblastoma resistance...

cns cancers

Protecting Hippocampus During Whole-Brain Radiation Substantially Reduces Rate of Cognitive Decline 

Protecting the stem cells that reside in and around the hippocampus substantially reduces the rate of cognitive decline in patients during whole-brain radiotherapy without a significant risk of recurrence in that area of the brain, a new study shows. Results of the phase II clinical trial of...

cns cancers
head and neck cancer

Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Glioblastoma Are Related to Specific Genomic Alterations

The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in glioblastoma has not been fully defined. In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Rutledge and colleagues assessed the association between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and molecular alterations, histologies, and survival in glioblastoma. In...

cns cancers

Investigators Report Valganciclovir May Increase Survival in Glioblastoma

In a letter to The New England Journal of Medicine, Cecilia Söderberg-­Nauclér, MD, PhD, and colleagues from the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, described experience with the anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) agent valganciclovir (Valcyte) in the treatment of glioblastoma, citing dramatically improved...

cns cancers

Neuro-Oncology Community Convenes in Workshop to Advance Imaging-Related Endpoints in Clinical Trials

Leaders from key cross-sections of the neuro-oncology community came together at a recent Brain Tumor Clinical Trial Endpoints Workshop to confront a critical challenge in developing and testing treatments for glioblastoma multiforme. Participants were able to adjourn the workshop with the...

cns cancers

Mutation Predicts Benefit From Alkylating Chemotherapy in Oligodendroglial Tumors

Patients in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9402 study with 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors had markedly prolonged overall survival after chemoradiotherapy (with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) compared with radiation therapy alone. Some patients with...

cns cancers

Surgical Resection of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: What Is the Standard of Care?

The neurosurgeon is often the gateway provider when patients present with what on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to be a new glioblastoma. Because histology-based diagnosis is a prerequisite for initiating standard therapy with radiation and chemotherapy, the first question that the...

cns cancers

Glioblastoma: Can We Make This Intractable Disease Tractable?

In the clinical array of brain tumors, glioblastoma is the most difficult to treat, and despite decades of research and the advent of new therapies, patients with glioblastoma continue to have a very poor prognosis. Leading brain tumor experts at the recent 25th Annual Cancer Progress Conference in ...

cns cancers

Considerable Extension of Survival Achieved With Conventional Treatment in Grade 2 Glioma

Long-term results from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9802 study in high-risk grade 2 gliomas were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting. The study’s mature analysis showed a 41% reduction in mortality at 5 years with combination radiation therapy followed by six cycles of PCV...

cns cancers

MSH6 Mutations May Influence Temozolomide Resistance in Treatment-Naive Gliomas Independent of MGMT Methylation

Resistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma has been thought to be largely mediated by expression of the DNA repair enzyme MGMT, although there are data suggesting a role for inactivation of MSH6 and other mismatch repair proteins. In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Nguyen and...

cns cancers

Dissemination of Glioblastoma Multiforme Outside Brain Is Common

The finding of extracranial metastases after organ transplantation from glioblastoma multiforme donors raised issues with the notion that disease spread is restricted to the brain. In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine, Müller and colleagues found that hematogenous spread of...

cns cancers

CENTRIC Trial Shows No Benefit of Adding Cilengitide to Therapy in Glioblastoma With Methylated MGMT Promoter

In the phase III CENTRIC/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 26071-22072 trial reported in The Lancet ­Oncology, Roger Stupp, MD, of University Hospital Zurich, and colleagues found that adding the selective αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide to standard...

cns cancers
gynecologic cancers
lung cancer

Aldoxorubicin Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designations for Glioblastoma, Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Ovarian Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted Orphan Drug Designations to aldoxorubicin in three indications: glioblastoma multiforme, small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Aldoxorubicin combines doxorubicin with a novel single-molecule linker that binds directly and specifically to...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to Bivalent Vaccine for Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation to MabVax Therapeutics’ vaccine for the treatment of relapsed or recurrent high-risk neuroblastoma in remission or with limited residual disease after best available treatment. The bivalent vaccine is intended to elicit ...

cns cancers

MD Anderson Receives $5 Million Grant for Research in Glioblastoma

The Broach Foundation for Brain Cancer Research has made a $5 million commitment to support glioblastoma multiforme research at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. James and Jamie Broach established the Broach Foundation in 2011, just months after Mr. Broach was diagnosed...

cns cancers

Effect of Micro-RNA on M2 Macrophages and Murine Glioblastoma

Monocyte-derived glioma-associated macrophages are the largest infiltrating immune cell population in glioblastomas and act to facilitate gliomagenesis. In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Xu and colleagues assessed the effect of microRNA (miR)-142-3p on...

cns cancers

A Candidly Humorous Approach to the Cancer Journey

BOOKMARK Title: Shrinkage: Manhood, Marriage, and the Tumor That Tried to Kill MeAuthor: Bryan BishopPublisher: Thomas Dunne BooksPublication date: April 29, 2014Price: $25.99; hardcover, 336 pages   At 30 years old, Bryan Bishop was having the time of his life. Known to millions of radio fans as...

cns cancers

Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery Improves Survival in Better-Prognosis Patients With Brain Metastases

In a secondary analysis utilizing the graded prognostic assessment—an improved diagnosis-specific index—patients with one to three brain metastases had no survival advantage when treated with whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, compared with whole-brain radiotherapy alone,...

cns cancers

Ten Best-Practice Measures Improve Quality of Care During Perioperative Period for Patients With Glioma

Ten best-practice measures identified by a multidisciplinary team at the Norris Cotton Cancer Center (NCCC) at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire, were used to improve the care provided to patients with glioma during the perioperative period. “Using a plan-do-study-act ...

cns cancers

Clinical Trials Actively Recruiting Patients With Glioblastoma

The information contained in this Clinical Trials Resource Guide includes actively recruiting clinical studies for patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. The studies include pilot, phase I, I/II, III, and observational trials investigating chemoradiation therapy;...

cns cancers

Dr. Howard Fine Named Founding Director of the Brain Tumor Center at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center

Howard A. Fine, MD, has been appointed to lead the newly established neuro-oncology program at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, effective February 2. He will serve as Director of the Brain Tumor Center and Associate Director for Translational Research in the Sandra and...

cns cancers

Glioblastoma Clinical Trials

I am writing in regard to the recent installment to “Clinical Trials” on Glioblastoma published in The ASCO Post (February 10, 2015, pages 69-71). As a principal investigator, I’d also like to call attention to the following glioblastoma trial, which remains open.   PHASE II Study Type:...

cns cancers

Having Cancer So Early in Life Gave Me Purpose

I had every classic brain tumor symptom in the book—severe headaches, dizziness, morning nausea—which plagued me for 16 years, starting when I was 8. In college, if I allowed myself to sleep more than 4 hours a night, the morning headaches, which were centered on the top of my head, were so severe, ...

cns cancers

Dinutuximab Combination Approved for Pediatric High-Risk Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved dinutuximab (Unituxin), a monoclonal antibody targeting glycolipid GD2,  as part of first-line therapy for pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface of neuroblastoma cells,...

cns cancers

Dinutuximab in Pediatric High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In the Clinic provides overviews of novel oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs.   On March 10, 2015, the chimeric monoclonal antibody dinutuximab ...

cns cancers

Clinical Trials Actively Recruiting Patients With Neuroblastoma

The information contained in this Clinical Trials Resource Guide includes actively recruiting clinical studies for patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. The studies include pilot, observational, phase I, phase II, and phase III trials investigating single-agent and...

cns cancers

New Concept for Brain Tumors: Tumor Treating Fields

A novel treatment modality that applies electric forces to brain tumors via scalp electrodes improved outcomes in a study reported at the 2015 ASCO Annual Meeting.1 In the first report of the full dataset, tumor treating fields significantly and consistently prolonged both progression-free...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

DNA Repair Enzyme Identified as a Potential Brain Cancer Drug Target

Rapidly dividing cells rely on an enzyme called Dicer to help them repair the DNA damage that occurs as they make mistakes in copying their genetic material over and over for new cells. Researchers have built on the discovery of Dicer’s role in fixing DNA damage to uncover a new potential...

cns cancers

Prognostic Factors in Men With Brain Metastases From Germ Cell Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Feldman et al, of the Global Germ Cell Cancer Group, identified prognostic factors in men with brain metastases from germ cell cancer at initial diagnosis or relapse. Overall survival was better in patients with metastases at diagnosis, a greater...

lung cancer
cns cancers

Prognostic Factors Identified in Patients With ALK‑Rearranged NSCLC and Brain Metastasis

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Johung and colleagues identified factors that distinguished survival rates among patients with ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastasis. The study included 90 patients from six institutions. Of them, 84...

cns cancers

Experimental Drug Shown to Prevent Neuroblastoma in Preclinical Study

Australian scientists have identified a critical molecular “feedback loop” that helps initiate and drive neuroblastoma, a cancer of the nervous system in children that is triggered in embryonal nerve cells. This feedback loop massively accelerates cancer development. The research team...

cns cancers

Preclinical Study Finds Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas With CRAF Fusions May Require Differential and Combinatorial Targeted Therapies

Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor diagnosed in children, and represent a heterogeneous group of tumors, which are poorly classified based on histology and location, according to Payal Jain, a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, and lead author of a...

cns cancers
survivorship

Chemotherapy-Induced Hearing Loss Affects Cognition in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors

More children are surviving malignant brain tumors than in the past, thanks to the use of intense treatments using platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin and high-dose carboplatin). Unfortunately, the therapy has a known side effect of permanent hearing loss, resulting from damage to the inner ear. ...

cns cancers
supportive care

Telotristat Etiprate Shows Clinical Benefit in Treating Carcinoid Syndrome in Cancer Patients When Added to Standard of Care

Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc's telotristat etiprate was shown to have clinical benefit in treating carcinoid syndrome in cancer patients not adequately controlled by long-acting somatostatin analog therapy, the current standard of care, according to data from the phase III TELESTAR study presented...

cns cancers
cns cancers

ASTRO 2015: Pediatric Patients With Ependymoma Have Favorable Outcomes With Immediate Postsurgical Radiation Therapy

Outcomes for pediatric patients as young as 12 months old with ependymoma who are treated with immediate postoperative radiation therapy are favorable and consistent, based upon tumor surgical resection and tumor grade, according to research presented by Merchant et al (Abstract 1) on October...

cns cancers

ASTRO 2015: Patients With Intermediate-Risk Meningiomas Who Receive Postoperative Radiotherapy Have a 96% 3-Year Progression-Free Survival

Patients with intermediate meningiomas treated with radiation therapy after surgery experienced a 96% 3-year progression-free survival rate and had minimal adverse events, according to research presented by Rogers et al October 21, 2015, at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s...

cns cancers

Targeted Chemotherapy Shows Early Signs of Slowing Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth With Less Toxicity in Preclinical Models

Surviving neuroblastoma as a child can come with just as many challenges as the cancer itself, mainly because of the toxic effects of chemotherapy. But a team of surgeons is in the nascent stages of developing a more targeted, less toxic method of treating neuroblastoma patients with chemotherapy....

cns cancers

No Difference in Outcomes With Short-Course vs Longer-Course Radiotherapy in Elderly or Frail Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

In a noninferiority phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Roa et al found no difference in overall survival, progression-free survival, or quality of life between short-course and longer-course radiotherapy in elderly or frail patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma...

cns cancers

FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Medical Device to Treat Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved an expanded indication for the Optune tumor treating fields device to treat patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. It is given along with the chemotherapy drug temozolomide following standard treatments that include...

solid tumors
lung cancer
cns cancers

ECC 2015: Lung and Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the RADIANT-4 Trial

An international team of researchers has shown that the use of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can delay tumor growth among both gastrointestinal and lung neuroendocrine tumors. This is particularly important for patients with lung tumors, the researchers say, because there is currently no approved...

solid tumors
cns cancers

ECC 2015: Advanced Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the NETTER-1 Trial

Results from a multicenter randomized international trial of an innovative treatment show a marked improvement in the length of time patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors experience progression-free survival, researchers reported at the 2015 European Cancer Congressin Vienna, Austria, on...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

ECC 2015: Genetic Screening of Brain Metastases Could Reveal New Targets for Treatment

Unraveling the genetic sequences of cancer that has spread to the brain could offer unexpected targets for effective treatment, according to new research (Abstract 2905) presented at the 2015 European Cancer Congress in Vienna, Austria, and published simultaneously by Brastianos et al in...

cns cancers

Long-Term Infusion of Immunotherapy May Reduce Pain in Children With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

Changing the infusion delivery method of the monoclonal antibody ch14.18/CHO (dinutuximab-beta, the European counterpart of dinutuximab [Unituxin]) in combination with interleukin-2 and oral 13-cis-retinoic acid from short-term infusion to long-term infusion in the treatment of children with...

cns cancers

Combination of Chemotherapy and T-Cell Immunotherapy May Provide Novel Treatment Strategy for Glioblastoma

A preclinical study has found that a combination of decitabine and T-cell immunotherapy demonstrated antitumor activity against glioblastomas in mouse models and was about 50% effective at curing the disease. The results, reported by Everson et al in Neuro-Oncology, show an innovative,...

cns cancers

Complete Resection of High-Grade Gliomas Yields Better Survival in Children, Especially Girls

For children with aggressive brain cancers called high-grade gliomas, the chances of survival are improved when surgery is successful in eliminating all visible cancer, according to a report published by McCrea et al in Neurosurgery. In addition to showing better survival with gross total...

cns cancers

Study Reveals Effects of Chemoradiation in Brains of Glioblastoma Patients

A study from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center researchers—the first to examine the effects of combined radiation and chemotherapy on the healthy brain tissue of glioblastoma patients—revealed not only specific structural changes within patients’ brains, but also...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Medullablastomas Can Be Classified Noninvasively at Diagnosis

Medulloblastoma, the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumor in children, can be classified into four subgroups, each with a different risk profile requiring subgroup-specific therapy. Currently, subgroup determination is done after surgical removal of the tumor. Investigators at...

cns cancers
gynecologic cancer
colorectal cancer
leukemia
lymphoma
skin cancer
gynecologic cancer
issues in oncology
issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing May Also Detect Some Maternal Cancers

A study published by Bianchi et al in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) showed that genetic test results revealed by noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities may detect underlying conditions in the mother, including cancer. The study reports on a case...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to Anti‑Tropomyosin Drug for Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug designation to Novogen Limited’s chemotherapy candidate drug Anisina for neuroblastoma. Anisina is a small molecule belonging to a family of compounds called anti-tropomyosins. It has been designed to inhibit Tpm3.1, a...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

Early Study Suggests Which Glioblastoma Patients May Benefit From Dasatinib

Clinicians testing the drug dasatinib (Sprycel), approved for several blood cancers, had hoped it would slow the aggressive growth of the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma; however, clinical trials to date have not found any benefit. Researchers at Mayo Clinic, who conducted one of those clinical...

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