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solid tumors

High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous PBSCT for Relapsed Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors

In a retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Adra et al found that good survival outcomes were achieved with the use of high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) in second-, third-, or later-line treatment of patients with relapsed...

solid tumors

FDA Grants Priority Review to Pembrolizumab for New Indication in Microsatellite Instability–High Cancer

On November 28, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted for review the supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) for pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the treatment of previously treated patients with advanced microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) cancer. The FDA granted...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies
skin cancer

SITC 2016: Phase I/II Data Combining Urelumab With Nivolumab Suggest Increased Antitumor Effect in Patients With Melanoma

Safety and efficacy data from a phase I/II study of urelumab in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo) in patients with hematologic and solid tumors, including biomarker analyses by level of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, was recently presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer ...

solid tumors

Factors in Clonal Evolution of Chemotherapy-Resistant Urothelial Carcinoma Identified

Faltas et al identified factors in the clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma, according to a study reported in Nature Genetics. Findings included wide intrapatient mutational heterogeneity and enrichment for clonal mutations involving L1 cell–adhesion molecule...

solid tumors

Does Telotristat Ethyl Reduce the Frequency of Bowel Movements in Patients With Metastatic NETs and Carcinoid Syndrome?

In the phase III TELESTAR trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kulke et al, telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, significantly reduced the frequency of bowel movements in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome. Telotristat ethyl...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

ESMO 2016: Vemurafenib Shows Clinical Benefit in Diverse BRAF V600–Mutated Tumors

Findings from a phase II trial of vemurafenib in previously treated patients with advanced disease and BRAF-mutated tumors indicate that the drug is effective in patients with diverse BRAF V600­–mutated tumors but not in patients with BRAF non-V600 mutations. After a mean treatment...

solid tumors
palliative care

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, on Solid Tumors: Use of Chemotherapy Near End of Life (French Language Version)

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, of the Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille Cancer Center, discusses in French his findings on the high rates of chemotherapy used at the end of life for metastatic solid cancer, especially in young patients treated in high-volume centers without a palliative care unit. (Abstract 1300O)

solid tumors
palliative care

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, on Solid Tumors: Use of Chemotherapy Near the End of Life

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, of the Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille Cancer Center, discusses his findings on the high rates of chemotherapy used at the end of life for metastatic solid cancer, especially in young patients treated in high-volume centers without a palliative care unit. (Abstract 1300O)

genomics/genetics
solid tumors

Janessa J. Laskin, MD, on Tumor Gene Expression and Advanced Cancers

Janessa J. Laskin, MD, of the British Columbia Cancer Agency, discusses the ways in which availability of tumor gene expression data facilitates clinical decision-making for patients with advanced cancers. (Abstract 1519O)

solid tumors

Modified Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Luo et al found that a modified staging classification based on the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging classifications may improve distinction among risk groups in pancreatic...

solid tumors

Study Finds TP53 and MDM2 Alterations Linked to Cisplatin Resistance in Advanced Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bagrodia et al found that alterations in TP53 and MDM2 were associated with cisplatin resistance and poorer outcome in patients with advanced germ cell tumors. Actionable alterations were found in a high proportion of cases of cisplatin...

solid tumors
symptom management

Study Finds Pneumonitis Associated With Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Antibody Treatment

In a two-institution experience reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Naidoo et al identified the incidence of pneumonitis occurring in patients receiving anti–PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1) monoclonal antibody as monotherapy or combined with anticytotoxic...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

CDC Finds Cancer Death Rates Among Children and Adolescents Declined by 20%, With Brain Cancer Topping Leukemia as Leading Cause of Death

New findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that the cancer death rate for children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 has been steadily declining since the mid-1970s and dropped by 20% from 1999 to 2014, the result of advances in therapy, especially for leukemia. During...

solid tumors

DNA Methylation Assay May Improve Diagnosis of Cancer of an Unknown Primary

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Moran et al developed a classifier of cancer type based on microarray DNA methylation signatures (EPICUP assay), which has showed promise in diagnosing cancers of an unknown primary. Study Details The tumor type classifier was developed in a training set of...

solid tumors

Epigenetic Dysregulation of MicroRNA-34A Identified in TP53-Related Cancer Risk

In a genome-wide DNA-methylation analysis to identify genes implicated in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Samuel et al found a significant association of loss-of-function <em>TP53</em> mutations with differential methylation at the locus encoding microRNA-34A (miR-34A). The study was reported in...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Breast Density and Risk Factors May Be Useful for Tailoring Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women

A collaborative modeling study evaluating outcomes for various screening intervals for women over the age of 50 based on breast density and risk for breast cancer has found that average-risk women with low breast density undergoing triennial screening and higher-risk women with high breast density...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancer

CA-125 Tests and CT Scans Still Routinely Used for Surveillance in Ovarian Cancer, Yet Benefit Remains Unproved

As reported by Esselen et al in JAMA Oncology, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) tests and computed tomography (CT) scans for surveillance in women with ovarian cancer continue to be used routinely, although their benefit has not been proven and the practices have significant quality-of-life and economic ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Insurance Status Impacts Survival, According to Two New Studies

Men with testicular cancer who were uninsured or on Medicaid had a higher risk of death from what is normally a curable disease than insured patients, a new study found. The findings, published by Markt et al in Cancer, add to growing evidence that differences in health insurance status can affect...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

Genetic Characteristics of Recurrent and Metastatic Head and Neck Cancers

Next-generation sequencing of recurrent or metastatic head and neck tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) has provided insight into the molecular characteristics of these tumors, which may aid in the implementation of precision treatment. Morris et al reported these findings in...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

High-Intensity Local Treatment May Improve Survival in Patients With Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

In a National Cancer Data Base analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Seisen et al found that high-intensity local treatment was associated with an overall survival benefit in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Study Details The study included data from...

solid tumors

Vemurafenib Active in BRAF V600E–Positive Papillary Thyroid Cancer Refractory to Radioactive Iodine

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Brose et al found that vemurafenib (Zelboraf) had antitumor activity in patients with BRAF V600E–positive recurrent or metastatic papillary thyroid cancer refractory to radioactive iodine. Study Details In the study, 26 patients without...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Increased Obesity Rates Reported in Adults With a History of Cancer

In a population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Greenlee et al found that rates of obesity have increased more in patients with a history of cancer than in the general population. These rates were particularly high among survivors of colorectal and breast cancers and black ...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Neoadjuvant Veliparib/Carboplatin and Neratinib ‘Graduate’ From Adaptive Randomization I-SPY 2 Trial in Early Breast Cancer

As reported by Rugo et al and Park et al in The New England Journal of Medicine, the adaptive randomization phase II I-SPY 2 trial has shown that the addition of veliparib/carboplatin and the addition of neratinib to standard neoadjuvant therapy have met criteria predictive of success in a phase...

solid tumors
lung cancer

Ceritinib Shows Overall and Intracranial Activity in Advanced NSCLC Previously Treated With Crizotinib and Chemotherapy

Crinò et al found that ceritinib (Zykadia) was active overall and in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with ALK-rearranged advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with crizotinib (Xalkori) and chemotherapy, according to the ASCEND-2 phase II...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Meta-analysis Indicates Similar Outcomes With Neoadjuvant Endocrine vs Chemotherapy in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Spring et al found that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with outcomes similar to those with chemotherapy in women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. Similar Outcomes The analysis included 3,490 patients from 20...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Study Finds Wide Variation in Breast Density Assessments Among Radiologists

A large observational study examining the variation in breast density assessment among radiologists in clinical practice has found a wide variation—from 6.3% to 84.5%—in the percentage of mammograms rated as showing dense breasts, which persisted after adjusting for patient...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

No Survival Benefit for Cabozantinib Reported in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Smith et al found no improvement in overall survival with cabozantinib (Cometriq) vs prednisone in patients with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, in the phase III COMET-1 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Cabozantinib, which inhibits MET, VEGF...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Comparison of Chemotherapy Regimens in Metastatic Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, fluorouracil [5-FU]) seems to be a safer and more reliable regimen than ECF (epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-FU) and irinotecan/cisplatin as a backbone for treatment in future studies of metastatic esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers. This finding from the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese People May Lower Levels of Certain Proteins Linked to Cancer

A new study investigating the effects of dietary weight loss and exercise on circulating levels of certain angiogenesis-related proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in postmenopausal...

solid tumors

Immune Cell Infiltrates May Portend Better Prognosis Across Several Tumor Types

High expression of T-cell and B-cell signatures in infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment predicted improved overall survival across many tumor types, according to a study reported by Iglesia et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Study Details The study involved use of mRNA...

solid tumors
sarcoma

French Phase III Trial Shows No Benefit of Adding Zoledronate to Chemotherapy and Surgery in Osteosarcoma

In the French phase III OS2006 trial reported by Piperno-Neumann et al in The Lancet Oncology, the addition of zoledronate to chemotherapy and surgery provided no event-free survival benefit in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma. Study Details In the open-label ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Adherence to Cancer Prevention Guidelines on Diet and Physical Activity May Reduce Cancer Risk and Mortality

According to the American Cancer Society’s 2016 Cancer Facts & Figures, behaviors such as poor diet choices, physical inactivity, excess alcohol consumption, and unhealthy body weight account for about 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States and likely could be prevented with...

solid tumors

CAR T-Cell Therapy Using Double Target Aimed at Solid Tumors in Preclinical Models

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), engineered from a patient's own immune cells, have been successful for treating blood cancers, but using CARs for solid tumors has been limited by side effects to normal tissues containing the protein targeted by the engineered cells. Now, in a report published...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Is Anti–PD-L1 Antibody Durvalumab Active in Advanced Urothelial Bladder Cancer?

In a phase I/II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Massard et al found that the anti–PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) antibody durvalumab was active in patients with previously treated advanced urothelial bladder cancer. Objective response appeared to be confined to...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

Improved Quality of Life Reported With Nivolumab vs Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Patients with previously treated advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving nivolumab (Opdivo) in the phase III CheckMate 025 trial had improved health-related quality of life compared with those receiving everolimus (Afinitor), as reported by Cella et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details In the ...

solid tumors

SNMMI 2016: Personalized Kidney Dosimetry Optimizes Radiotherapy Dose in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors

Researchers at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) presented a molecular imaging technique that allows oncologists to set patients’ radiotherapy doses right at that critical limit of delivering the most powerful dosage to neuroendocrine...

solid tumors

SNMMI 2016: A Blood-Based Multi-Transcript Test May Predict Success of Neuroendocrine Cancer Therapy

Malignant neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare, notoriously difficult to treat, and associated with poor long-term survival. According to research presented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI), an investigative blood test could...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

Study Finds Pembrolizumab Active in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

As reported by Seiwert et al in The Lancet Oncology, the monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in patients with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)–positive recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 study. Study ...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors

Norwegian Study Shows Benefit of Aspirin as Secondary Prevention in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

A Norwegian population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bains et al showed that use of aspirin after diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with improved colorectal cancer–specific survival. Study Details In the population-based retrospective cohort study,...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Davendra P. Sohal, MD, MPH, of Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Recommendations are based on expert panel systematic review of the...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Treatment of Locally Advanced, Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

As reported by Edward P. Balaban, DO, of Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic cancer. The recommendations are based on expert panel...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Treatment of Potentially Curable Pancreatic Cancer

ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of potentially curable pancreatic cancer, as reported by Alok A. Khorana, MD, of Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. The recommendations are based on expert panel systematic review of the literature...

solid tumors

Investigational Drug Abemaciclib Shows Promising Activity Against Several Cancer Types in Early Study

An experimental CDK inhibitor, abemaciclib, yielded encouraging and durable results against several different types of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, glioblastoma, and melanoma, according to a report published by Patnaik et al in Cancer Discovery. The results of the trial supported ...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Prognostic Impact of Recurrence Score and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer After 5 Years of Tamoxifen

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Wolmark et al, higher 21-gene recurrence score (RS) was strongly predictive of late disease recurrence among patients with high quantitative estrogen-receptor expression (ESR1) receiving tamoxifen for 5 years in two NRG Oncology/NSABP (National...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancer

Study Finds Apparent Benefit of Adding Fosbretabulin to Bevacizumab in Recurrent Ovarian, Tubal, or Peritoneal Carcinoma

Adding the vascular-disrupting agent fosbretabulin to bevacizumab (Avastin) improved outcomes in patients with recurrent ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, according to a randomized phase II NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Monk et...

solid tumors

John D. Hainsworth, MD, on Advanced Solid Tumors: Results From the MyPathway Trial

John D. Hainsworth, MD, of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute, discusses early findings from this umbrella basket study on targeted treatment, outside of current drug indications, for different types of advanced solid tumors (Abstract LBA11511).

solid tumors

ASCO 2016: Liquid Biopsy May Help Guide Treatment Decisions for Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

A large-scale genomic analysis found that patterns of genetic changes detected in blood samples (liquid biopsy) closely mirror those identified in traditional tumor biopsy. With blood samples from more than 15,000 patients and 50 different tumor types, this is one of the largest cancer genomics...

solid tumors

ASCO 2016: Precision Medicine Approach May Expand Therapeutic Options for Patients

Researchers reported encouraging early results from a phase II trial that matches patients with molecular abnormalities in the tumor to corresponding targeted treatments. Twenty-nine of 129 patients with 12 different types of advanced cancers responded to drugs outside of U.S. Food and Drug...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Poorer Adherence to Endocrine Treatment Associated With Poorer Outcome in Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In an analysis of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chirgwin et al found that poorer adherence to endocrine therapy was associated with poorer disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer ...

solid tumors

FDA Approves New Diagnostic Imaging Agent to Detect Rare Neuroendocrine Tumors

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved Netspot, the first kit for the preparation of Ga-68 dotatate injection, a radioactive diagnostic agent for positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. This radioactive probe will help locate tumors in adult and pediatric patients with...