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solid tumors

Antitumor Activity of  Poly-IC and Anti–PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

Epitope-based vaccines that induce CD8-positive T-cell responses to tumor-associated antigens are being investigated in the treatment of several types of cancer. In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Nagato and colleagues showed that combined immunotherapy with polyinosinic-polycytidylic ...

solid tumors

shRNAs Can Identify T-Cell Inhibitory Mechanisms in Tumor Microenvironment

Although recent findings indicate that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells can produce durable responses in some cancer patients despite the presence of advanced disease, the mechanisms controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumors have not been well characterized. In a study...

solid tumors

DNA Repair Pathway Recombination Proficiency Score Correlates With Tumor Sensitivity to Chemotherapy

As reported in Science Translational Medicine, Pitroda and colleagues developed a recombination proficiency score that measures the efficiency of DNA repair pathways in the context of cancer therapy aimed at generating DNA damage. The score is based on expression levels of four genes involved in...

solid tumors

Inactivation of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Allows Natural Killer Cells to Control Metastases

New therapeutic approaches to blocking inhibitory pathways of the immune system have raised hopes that such treatments might thwart development of metastases. In a study in Nature, Paolino and colleagues have shown that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

ASPHO Abstracts Cover Broad Range of Topics

More than 400 abstracts—a record—were submitted for the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology in Chicago. Here is a small sampling of those studies, with comments from the abstract authors. Token Economy to Improve Compliance BMT Bucks form the basis of a...

solid tumors

Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Against Gastrointestinal Radiation Toxicity

In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine, Taniguchi and colleagues found that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase by genetic knockout or inhibition of all prolyl hydroxylase domain isoforms by the small-molecule dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) resulted in promotion of protection against...

solid tumors

Oncologists Tell Inspiring Stories of What It’s  Like to Treat Cancer in The Big Casino

Title: The Big Casino: America’s Best Cancer Doctors Share Their Most Powerful StoriesEditors: Stan Winokur, MD, and Vincent CoppolaPublishing Platform: CreateSpacePublication date: May 2014Price: $9.99; Paperback, 160 pages   In May, Stan Winokur, MD, and co-editor Vincent Coppola, published The...

solid tumors

How Evolutionary Game Theory Is Offering Clues to Disrupt Cancer Cell Metabolism

Kenneth J. Pienta, MD, and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore are using the principles of evolutionary game theory to learn how cancer cells cooperate within a tumor to gather energy and metastasize. Game theory, the mathematic study of strategic decision-making that is commonly...

solid tumors

Sluys-Kessler Radium Apparatus, Paris, 1930

Devices to accurately deliver high-dose radium therapy became extremely sophisticated during the late 1920s. In this photograph, the patient is being treated for a carcinoma of the back by a Sluys-Kessler machine. This apparatus could also accurately deliver therapy for a wide variety of internal...

solid tumors

Nearly 800 New Cancer Medicines and Vaccines in Development, PhRMA Reports

America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are currently developing nearly 800 new medicines and vaccines for cancer, according to a report released recently by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA).1 Perseverance Needed “In recent decades, we have seen great...

solid tumors

Treating Testicular Cancer in 2014

Testicular cancer is one of oncology’s true success stories. It is a highly treatable disease, usually curable, that most often develops in young and middle-aged men. Despite the success in testicular cancer, there are still clinical challenges ranging from staging to optimum therapeutic...

solid tumors

Long-Term Results of COU-AA-302 Confirm Abiraterone Benefit

Final results of the COU-AA-302 trial continue to support the survival benefit of abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, often referred to as the “predocetaxel space.” “The study met the overall survival endpoint and all...

hematologic malignancies
solid tumors
issues in oncology

Top 10 Myths About FDA’s Office of Hematology and Oncology Products

INSIDE THE BLACK BOX is an occasional column providing insight into the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and its policies and procedures. In this installment, FDA oncologists Gideon Blumenthal, MD, and Tatiana Prowell, MD, discuss 10 common myths about FDA’s Office of Hematology and Oncology ...

solid tumors

Selective Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Tumor Cells

In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Shin and colleagues synthesized a novel polyphenol conjugate (DPP-23) that exerted antitumor effects by targeting the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum via production of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells but not in normal...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Proteome-Scale Map of the Human Interactome Network Created

Researchers have produced a new largest-scale map of human protein interactions that will better enable scientists to trace how genetic changes lead to diseases ranging from cancer to Huntington’s disease. The expanded map, published in the journal Cell,1 is about 30% larger than the combination of ...

solid tumors

Predicting Immunogenic Tumor Neoantigens With Combined Mass Spectrometry and Exome Sequencing

Peptides containing tumor somatic mutations are potentially immunogenic if presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I), and it has been shown that such mutant peptides act as T-cell epitopes.  In a study reported in Nature, Yadav and colleagues developed an approach...

solid tumors

Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy Targets Tumor-Specific Mutant Antigens

In a study reported in Nature, Gubin and colleagues showed that the effects of CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein-4) and PD-1 PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) inhibitors (checkpoint blockade) are achieved through targeting of tumor-specific mutant antigens. In the study,...

solid tumors

Immune-Suppressing Protein in Noncancerous Cells of Cancer Patients Offers Clue to Drug Response

A multicenter phase I study using an investigational immune therapy drug has found that the presence of the immune-suppressing protein PD-L1 in noncancerous immune cells can predict how patients with different types of advanced cancer will respond to treatment.  The study, led by a Yale Cancer...

hematologic malignancies
solid tumors

Clinical Trials Actively Recruiting Children and Young Adults With Cancer

The information contained in this Clinical Trials Resource Guide includes actively recruiting clinical studies of children and young adult cancer survivors. The studies include phase I, I/II, III, observational, and interventional trials investigating genomic profiling to personalize treatment;...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

FDA Drug Approvals 2014

Nivolumab (Opdivo), a monoclonal antibody, was approved for treatment of metastatic melanoma.  Approved December 22, 2014. Olaparib (Lynparza), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, was approved for treatment of BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer. Approved December 19, 2014....

solid tumors

Show Your Patients the Latest Research on Genitourinary Cancers

The 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium takes place February 26 to 28 in Orlando, Florida. Direct your patients to www.cancer.net/blog to read about the latest research on prostate, bladder, kidney, testicular, and other genitourinary cancers being presented at the meeting. ■ © 2015. American...

solid tumors

Current Progress Against Cancer and What Lies Ahead in the Next Decade

In January, ASCO released its report, Clinical Cancer Advances 2015: An Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer,1 which details research advances over the past decade that have led to longer survival and better quality of life for the more than half-a-million people diagnosed with cancer each...

solid tumors

Extraordinary Medical Advances and the Conundrum They Pose

BOOKMARK Title: Ordinary Medicine: Extraordinary Treatments, Longer Lives, and Where to Draw the LineAuthor: Sharon R. KaufmanPublisher: Duke University PressPublication date: May 29, 2015Price: $26.95 paperback, 336 pages Medicine has changed radically over the past 15 years. Who doesn’t welcome...

solid tumors

Study Reports Improved Survival With Lapatinib and CapeOx in Asian and Younger Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma

In a phase III trial (TRIO-013/LOGiC) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hecht et al found that the addition of lapatinib (Tykerb) to capecitabine-oxaliplatin (CapeOx) in patients with previously untreated HER2-amplified advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma did not improve overall...

solid tumors

Mental Health Status Prior to Radical Cystectomy Can Indicate Risk of Complications

A patient's mental health prior to surgery can influence postoperative outcomes. Removal of the bladder, or radical cystectomy, is an effective treatment for locally advanced bladder cancer, but complications occur in as many as 66% of patients. In a study published by Sharma et al in The Journal...

solid tumors

Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation More Effective Than Single-Dose Radiation in Pituitary Tumors

A recent study at Houston Methodist Hospital proved that multiple small doses of highly focused radiation therapy is safer and more effective than a single larger dose of radiation at destroying pituitary gland tumors. The findings on the use of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy were published ...

solid tumors

Single-Institution Experience Indicates Improved Outcomes With Higher Radiotherapy Doses in Inoperable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a single-institution retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tao et al found that use of higher radiotherapy doses was associated with prolonged local control and overall survival in patients with inoperable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Overall survival was...

solid tumors

Improved Outcomes With Modified Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-FU vs Standard Regimen Plus Growth Factor Support in Metastatic Gastric Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shah et al in the U.S. Gastric Cancer Consortium found that a modified regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (5-FU) (mDCF) improved toxicity and survival vs a standard DCF regimen plus growth factor support as first-line...

issues in oncology
solid tumors

Biomarker miR-506 Helps Predict Survival Time in Gastric Cancer Patients

Gastric cancer is typically associated with late-stage diagnosis, as well as high mortality. A study by Li et al in The American Journal of Pathology points to a pivotal role played by the biomarker microRNA (miR)-506 in gastric cancer. Patients whose primary gastric cancer lesions express high...

solid tumors
lung cancer
cns cancers

ECC 2015: Lung and Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the RADIANT-4 Trial

An international team of researchers has shown that the use of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can delay tumor growth among both gastrointestinal and lung neuroendocrine tumors. This is particularly important for patients with lung tumors, the researchers say, because there is currently no approved...

solid tumors
cns cancers

ECC 2015: Advanced Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the NETTER-1 Trial

Results from a multicenter randomized international trial of an innovative treatment show a marked improvement in the length of time patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors experience progression-free survival, researchers reported at the 2015 European Cancer Congressin Vienna, Austria, on...

solid tumors

ECC 2015: Use of Aspirin Linked to Improved Survival in Gastrointestinal Cancers

Aspirin improved survival in patients with tumors situated throughout the gastrointestinal tract, results from a large study in the Netherlands showed. This is the first time that survival data from patients with tumors in different gastrointestinal locations have been analyzed at the same time;...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Decreased Mortality for Men With Unfavorable-Risk Prostate Cancer and Moderate or Severe Comorbidities Treated With Radiotherapy Alone

Men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer and moderate or severe comorbidities had significantly decreased overall and cardiac mortality when treated with radiotherapy alone vs radiotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy, according to a study described in a research letter in JAMA. In the letter, ...

solid tumors
hepatobiliary cancer

Study Finds No Recurrence-Free Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Sorafenib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Resection or Ablation

In the phase III STORM trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Bruix et al found no benefit with adjuvant sorafenib (Nexavar) treatment in patients who had undergone resection or ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Study Details In this double-blind trial, 1,114 patients from 202 sites in 28...

lung cancer
solid tumors

Statistical Model May Identify Patients Most Likely to Benefit From Mesothelioma Surgery

A new statistical model may help predict which patients are most likely to receive life-extending benefits from surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma, according to a report published by Leuzzi et al in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors

Synchronous vs Sequential Tumor Resection in Patients With Advanced Colorectal Cancer

About 20% of patients with colorectal cancer have cancers that have metastasized beyond the colon at the time of their diagnosis, with the liver being the most common site for these metastases. The approach to treating primary tumors within the colon and metastatic tumors in the liver continues to...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Study Finds Nearly Half of Testicular Cancer Risk Is Inherited

A large European study that combined both population-based and genomic techniques to investigate the heritability of testicular germ cell tumor has found that 48.9% of all the possible factors contributing to risk for the disease are inherited. Rather than being the result of one faulty gene,...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Danish Analysis Indicates Increased Risk of Late Adverse Outcomes in Patients Treated for Relapsed Disseminated Testicular Germ Cell Cancer

In a Danish analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lauritsen et al found that patients with testicular germ cell cancer who survived after more than one line of treatment for disseminated disease had an increased risk of late toxicity and death resulting from causes other than germ...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Long-Term Results of Dutch CROSS Trial Indicate Continued Survival Benefit With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer

Initial results of the Dutch phase III CROSS trial showed a significant 5-year overall survival benefit with the addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to surgery after a median 45-month follow-up in patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or esophagogastric...

solid tumors
solid tumors

Study Finds Increased Short-Term Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality After Chemotherapy for Testicular Nonseminoma

In a population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fung et al found a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality during the first year after chemotherapy for testicular nonseminoma. No increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality after surgery was...

issues in oncology
solid tumors
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Genetic Mutations That Predict Response to Chemotherapy in Bladder Cancer

Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy is the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, only between 25% and 50% of patients achieve a pathologic response. A study investigating biomarkers that can predict response to chemotherapy in patients with...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer
prostate cancer
bladder cancer

Analysis Suggests Use of Pioglitazone for Diabetes May Increase Risk of Prostate and Pancreatic Cancers But Not Bladder Cancer

Available data suggest an increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone treatment for diabetes. In an analysis of Kaiser Permanente Northern California data reported in JAMA, Lewis et al found no significantly increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes ever using pioglitazone....

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
pancreatic cancer
supportive care

ESMO World GI 2015: SENRI Trial Evaluates NK1 Antagonists for Emesis Prevention in Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy

The SENRI trial has opened the window to evaluate neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonists for emesis prevention in patients taking oxaliplatin chemotherapy, said European Society for Medical Oncology World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer (ESMO) spokesperson and antiemetics expert Fausto Roila, MD....

solid tumors

No Benefit of Adding CT to Basic Screening for Occult Cancer in Patients With Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism

In a Canadian study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Carrier et al found that adding computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis to basic screening did not improve detection of occult cancers in patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Venous...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

ASCO 2015: Biomarker Analysis Reveals Several Potential Treatment Targets in Subtype of Anal Cancer

Squamous cell anal carcinomas are rare, representing only about 2% of gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses. These cancers, which are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), sometimes prove very difficult to treat, recurring or developing metastases following standard treatment. Seeking to...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
lung cancer

ASCO 2015: Entolimod May Be a Promising Treatment Option for Many Solid Tumors

A collaborative team of researchers led by Alex A. Adjei, MD, PhD, FACP, of Roswell Park Cancer Institute, shared results from the first clinical study of the anticancer effects of the novel agent entolimod on May 30 at the 2015 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago (Abstract 3063). Their findings confirm ...

solid tumors

Adjuvant Regimen Produces Good Survival Results in Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Carcinoma

In a phase II Intergroup study (SWOG S0809) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ben-Josef et al found that adjuvant capecitabine and gemcitabine followed by concurrent radiotherapy and capecitabine produced good survival results in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or...

solid tumors

ASCO 2015: Bevacizumab Combination Boosts Survival in Advanced Stomach and Esophageal Cancers

Patients whose metastatic stomach or esophageal cancers were driven by a mutated HER2 gene had markedly improved response rates and survival when bevacizumab (Avastin) was added to a standard drug combination. Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, who led the research, will report these...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
gynecologic cancer

ASCO 2015: Mismatch Repair Deficiency Predicts Response to Pembrolizumab Among Patients With Colorectal and Other Cancers

A phase II study identified the first genomic marker—mismatch repair deficiency—to predict clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockade with the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab (Keytruda). Among 50 patients with colorectal cancer, 62% of the 25 patients with mismatch...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors
issues in oncology
issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Study Finds Noninvasive Colon Cancer Screening May Be Promising for African Americans

In a first-of-its-kind clinical trial, physician-scientists at University Hospitals (UH) Case Medical Center, Seidman Cancer Center, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine found that a new, noninvasive technology for colon cancer screening is a promising alternative to colonoscopy...