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solid tumors

Gene in Eye Melanomas Linked to Good Prognosis

Melanomas that develop in the eye often are fatal. Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine and the Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, Missouri, report they have identified a mutated gene in melanoma tumors of the eye that appears to predict a good outcome. The research was...

solid tumors

Help Your Patients Find the Latest Research on GU Cancers

The 2013 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium is taking place now, from February 14–16 in Orlando, Florida. Direct your patients to www.cancer.net/GUsymposium to find written summaries for patients and a podcast that highlights the research presented at the meeting. Also on Cancer.Net, your patients can ...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Regorafenib for Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

The FDA has expanded the approved use of regorafenib (Stivarga) to treat patients with metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that no longer respond to treatment with imatinib (Gleevec) or sunitinib (Sutent). Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, blocks several enzymes...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

Oncogenic Pathway Signatures May Guide Treatment after Colorectal Cancer Resection 

Deregulation of oncogenic signaling pathways was used to molecularly subclassify colorectal cancers into clinically relevant subgroups with both prognostic and predictive implications, in a study from the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy in Durham, North Carolina.1 “There is a need to ...

solid tumors
breast cancer

Evaluating HER2 Status in Esophageal Cancers: FISH vs Immunohistochemistry 

In screening patients with esophageal cancers for HER2 status, the relative efficiency of immunohistochemistry (IHC) vs fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been debated. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic compared the testing strategies and have proposed an algorithm that puts IHC up front, ...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Welcomes New Members to Its Medical Advisory Board

The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network has named four new members to the organization’s Medical Advisory Board. The newest advisors are leading clinicians in the field of pancreatic cancer: Joseph M. Herman, MD, MSc, Johns Hopkins University; George A. Fisher Jr, MD, PhD, Stanford University; James...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

Finding New Strategies to More Effectively Treat Pancreatic Cancer

While some progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, and genomics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the disease remains one of the most challenging malignancies. According to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) figures, 44,000 people were...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

Colorectal Cancer: A Decade of Progress 

The 2013 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium marked the 10th anniversary of the meeting. Richard M. Goldberg, MD, the Klotz Family Chair in Cancer Research, Professor of Medicine, and James Cancer Hospital Physician-in-Chief at The Ohio State University, looked back over the decade to highlight the...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Second-line Docetaxel Improves Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Survival 

A phase III study from the United Kingdom has shown that second-line treatment with docetaxel improves overall survival of patients with advanced esophagogastric cancer.1 The strategy has already been widely adopted, but COUGAR-02 is the first study to provide definitive evidence of a survival...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Targeted Therapy Gaining Ground in the Second-line Treatment of Gastric Cancer 

In gastric cancer, the concept of targeted therapy assumed clinical significance when the addition of trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy improved survival by almost 3 months in the ToGA trial.1 Another anti-HER2 agent, lapatinib (Tykerb), now looks promising, as does an agent targeting the...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Did Corticosteroids Worsen Survival in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Enrolled in the AFFIRM Trial? 

A post hoc analysis of the AFFIRM trial found that on-study use of corticosteroids led to worse outcomes in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer regardless of whether patients were randomly assigned to enzalutamide (Xtandi) or placebo.1 On-study corticosteroid use was associated with...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Novel Antiandrogen Shows Encouraging Phase II Results in High-risk Nonmetastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer 

Preliminary results of a phase II study suggest that a novel antiandrogen called ARN-509 is safe, well tolerated, and has promising activity in high-risk nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. ARN-509 is a novel, second-generation, oral antiandrogen that binds directly to the...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Reduced Risk of PSA Failure with Adjuvant Radiotherapy vs Wait-and-see Approach in Stage T3 Prostate Cancer

Extended follow-up of the German ARO 96-02 trial shows that adjuvant radiotherapy reduces the risk of biochemical failure in men whose prostate cancer extends through the prostate capsule (stage T3), compared with a wait-and-see approach, after radical prostatectomy. Adjuvant radiotherapy reduced...

solid tumors

p53 Inactivation in the Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Tumor Progression via Immunosuppressive Lymphoid-like Stromal Network

Inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53 through somatic mutations is observed in approximately half of cancers. The finding that p53 mutations sometimes occur in tumor-associated fibroblasts and are correlated with an increased rate of metastases and poor prognosis suggests that p53 dysfunction in ...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Assay That May Help Detect the Progression of Testicular Cancer 

Abbott announced that the ARCHITECT AFP assay, which may help doctors detect the progression of testicular cancer as well as serious birth defects, has received FDA approval. The ARCHITECT AFP assay is a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for the quantitative determination of...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

More Recreational Physical Activity Associated with Reduced All-cause Mortality in Patients with Colorectal Cancer 

In a study recently reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology, Peter T. Campbell, PhD, and colleagues from the Epidemiology Research Program of the American Cancer Society, Atlanta, found that more recreational physical activity before and after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

Benefit of Continued Antiangiogenic Treatment with Bevacizumab after Progression in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 

As reported recently in Lancet Oncology by Jaafar Bennouna, MD, of Institut de Cancérologie de l’Ouest, Nantes, France, and colleagues, the phase III ML18147 trial showed a survival benefit with continued bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment after first progression in metastatic colorectal cancer.1 The...

solid tumors
hepatobiliary cancer

Medical Oncologists Underestimate Resectability of Liver Metastases 

Medical oncologists are apt to underestimate the resectability of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer and therefore often fail to refer potential surgical candidates for surgical consultation, according to a study presented at the 18th Annual Conference of the National Comprehensive ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Obese Men with Benign Biopsy at High Risk for Prostate Cancer

Obese men were more likely to have precancerous lesions detected in their benign prostate biopsies compared with nonobese men and were at a greater risk for subsequently developing prostate cancer, according to data published recently in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.1 “Our...

solid tumors
breast cancer
survivorship

Dr. Bernard Fisher's Breast Cancer Research Left a Lasting Legacy of Improved Therapeutic Efficacy and Survival 

Bernard Fisher, MD, is recognized today for his groundbreaking research in breast cancer, which ultimately ended the standard practice of performing the Halsted radical mastectomy, a treatment that had been in place for more than 75 years. His laboratory and clinical investigations led to more...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer
global cancer care

Oral S-1 Noninferior to Gemcitabine in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer in Japan and Taiwan 

As reported by Hideki Ueno, MD, PhD, of National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, and colleagues in Journal of Clinical Oncology, treatment with the oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 was associated with noninferior overall survival and reduced hematologic toxicity compared with gemcitabine...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

12-Gene Recurrence Score Predicts Recurrence in Stage II Colon Cancer in CALGB 9851 Population 

As reported by Alan P. Venook, MD, Professor of Medicine (Hematology/Oncology) at the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in Journal of Clinical Oncology, a 12-gene recurrence score (Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay) was shown to predict recurrence in stage II colon cancer in a...

solid tumors
prostate cancer
issues in oncology

AUA Releases New Clinical Guideline on Prostate Cancer Screening

Men ages 55 to 69 who are considering prostate cancer screening should talk with their doctors about the benefits and harms of testing and proceed based on their personal values and preferences, according to a new clinical practice guideline released by the American Urological Association (AUA)....

solid tumors
leukemia

Profound and Rapid Molecular Remission with CD19-targeted T Cells in Relapsed B-cell ALL 

As was recently reported in Science Translational Medicine, Renier J. Brentjens, MD, and colleagues at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, found that profound molecular remission was rapidly induced in patients with relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using autologous T ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Phase II Trial Targeting Genetic Anomaly in Castration-resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer Underway

A new clinical trial is testing whether targeting treatments to a genetic anomaly can lead to better treatments for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. The trial, led by investigators at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, is being conducted at 11 sites throughout...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer

Smoking Linked to Shorter Disease-free Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer 

According to an analysis reported by Amanda Phipps, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Washington and Assistant Member at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, patients with stage III colon cancer who...

solid tumors
breast cancer

EGFR Prevents Maturation of microRNAs under Hypoxic Conditions

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sends signals that thwart the development of tumor-suppressing microRNAs under conditions of hypoxia, an international team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center discovered. The results were reported in an early online...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

Genetic Diversity May Predict Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer

A new measure of cell heterogeneity within a tumor may predict treatment outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  In a recent report,1 investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary reported how the mutant allele tumor...

solid tumors

HIV Infection Does Not Adversely Affect Outcomes of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma is feasible for HIV-infected patients, with no differences in post-transplant survival or hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence rates compared with liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-uninfected patients. The study, published in ...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

No Difference in Overall Survival with Axitinib or Sorafenib in Second-line Treatment for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma 

The phase III open-label AXIS trial comparing axitinib (Inlyta) vs sorafenib (Nexavar) as second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma showed significantly prolonged independent radiology committee–assessed progression-free survival with axitinib treatment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.665, P ...

solid tumors
colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Geriatric Factors Predict Severe Toxicity in Elderly Patients on First-line Treatment for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 

Elderly patients differ with respect to tolerance of therapy for colorectal cancer. In a study reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology, Thomas Aparicio, MD, PhD, of the University of Paris, and colleagues analyzed geriatric factors for potential association with severe toxicity, dose-intensity...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Denosumab to Treat Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the approved use of denosumab (Xgeva) to treat adults and some adolescents with giant cell tumor of the bone, a rare and usually noncancerous tumor. Denosumab, which was granted orphan product designation, was reviewed under the FDA’s...

solid tumors

Surveillance Sufficient Follow-up for Most Patients with Stage I Seminoma  

Surveillance appears to be sufficient for men with stage I seminoma treated with orchiectomy, sparing patients from side effects of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. In a long-term study presented at the ASCO Annual Meeting,1 99.5% of men followed by surveillance alone were disease-free and alive ...

solid tumors

Dose-dense Chemotherapy Improves Outcomes in Poor-prognosis Germ Cell Tumors 

For poor-prognosis patients with germ-cell tumors, dose intensification of chemotherapy based on slow decline of tumor markers can increase progression-free survival, according to the first randomized trial of a “personalized” treatment strategy for this tumor.1 At the 2013 ASCO Annual Meeting,...

solid tumors

Felice Schnoll-Sussman, MD, Named Director of Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell 

NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center has appointed Felice Schnoll-Sussman, MD, Director of its Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health. Dr. Schnoll-Sussman, has served as the Center’s Director of Research since 2007 and Acting Director since 2012. As Director, Dr....

solid tumors

Gastric Cancer Foundation Announces Research Partnership With AGA

The Gastric Cancer Foundation recently announced the formation of a research partnership with the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and a confirmed timeline for awarding newly funded research grants for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. Wayne Feinstein, Chairman of the Board of...

solid tumors
integrative oncology

Stress and Tumor Biology: Insights Into Managing Stress to Help Improve Cancer Care

Stress is ubiquitous in our society, especially for people diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. There is a common misconception that stress is derived from a particular negative event. However, the event itself (the stressors, such as cancer diagnoses and treatment) does not causes stress....

solid tumors

The Latest From the 2014 Genitourinary Symposium

Help your patients catch up on the latest research on genitourinary cancers—direct them to www.cancer .net/gusymposium for summaries of what the latest research means for patient care and a podcast with an ASCO expert explaining the importance of this research. They can also look for coverage of...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

How Decoding the Genomes of Exceptional Responders Is Leading to More Effective Treatment for All Patients With Cancer

In 2012, David B. Solit, MD, Geoffrey Beene Chair and Director of the Center for Molecular Oncology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York, and his colleagues published the results of a phase II study1 of 45 patients with advanced bladder cancer. The purpose of the clinical...

solid tumors

Antitumor Immunity Affected by Standard Lab Mouse Housing Temperature

In a study reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Kokolusa and colleagues showed that fundamental aspects of antitumor immunity are significantly affected by ambient housing temperature for lab mice. Standard ambient temperature in research facility lab mice housing is...

solid tumors

Antitumor Activity of  Poly-IC and Anti–PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody

Epitope-based vaccines that induce CD8-positive T-cell responses to tumor-associated antigens are being investigated in the treatment of several types of cancer. In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Nagato and colleagues showed that combined immunotherapy with polyinosinic-polycytidylic ...

solid tumors

shRNAs Can Identify T-Cell Inhibitory Mechanisms in Tumor Microenvironment

Although recent findings indicate that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells can produce durable responses in some cancer patients despite the presence of advanced disease, the mechanisms controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumors have not been well characterized. In a study...

solid tumors

DNA Repair Pathway Recombination Proficiency Score Correlates With Tumor Sensitivity to Chemotherapy

As reported in Science Translational Medicine, Pitroda and colleagues developed a recombination proficiency score that measures the efficiency of DNA repair pathways in the context of cancer therapy aimed at generating DNA damage. The score is based on expression levels of four genes involved in...

solid tumors

Inactivation of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Allows Natural Killer Cells to Control Metastases

New therapeutic approaches to blocking inhibitory pathways of the immune system have raised hopes that such treatments might thwart development of metastases. In a study in Nature, Paolino and colleagues have shown that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

ASPHO Abstracts Cover Broad Range of Topics

More than 400 abstracts—a record—were submitted for the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology in Chicago. Here is a small sampling of those studies, with comments from the abstract authors. Token Economy to Improve Compliance BMT Bucks form the basis of a...

solid tumors

Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Against Gastrointestinal Radiation Toxicity

In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine, Taniguchi and colleagues found that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase by genetic knockout or inhibition of all prolyl hydroxylase domain isoforms by the small-molecule dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) resulted in promotion of protection against...

solid tumors

Oncologists Tell Inspiring Stories of What It’s  Like to Treat Cancer in The Big Casino

Title: The Big Casino: America’s Best Cancer Doctors Share Their Most Powerful StoriesEditors: Stan Winokur, MD, and Vincent CoppolaPublishing Platform: CreateSpacePublication date: May 2014Price: $9.99; Paperback, 160 pages   In May, Stan Winokur, MD, and co-editor Vincent Coppola, published The...

solid tumors

How Evolutionary Game Theory Is Offering Clues to Disrupt Cancer Cell Metabolism

Kenneth J. Pienta, MD, and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore are using the principles of evolutionary game theory to learn how cancer cells cooperate within a tumor to gather energy and metastasize. Game theory, the mathematic study of strategic decision-making that is commonly...

solid tumors

Sluys-Kessler Radium Apparatus, Paris, 1930

Devices to accurately deliver high-dose radium therapy became extremely sophisticated during the late 1920s. In this photograph, the patient is being treated for a carcinoma of the back by a Sluys-Kessler machine. This apparatus could also accurately deliver therapy for a wide variety of internal...

solid tumors

Nearly 800 New Cancer Medicines and Vaccines in Development, PhRMA Reports

America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are currently developing nearly 800 new medicines and vaccines for cancer, according to a report released recently by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA).1 Perseverance Needed “In recent decades, we have seen great...