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solid tumors

Incidence of Endocrine Dysfunction With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Barroso-Sousa et al evaluated the incidence of endocrine dysfunction in patients receiving currently approved immune checkpoint inhibitors for various advanced solid tumors. Patients who received combination therapy were found to...

solid tumors

ASTRO 2017: Radiation-Immunotherapy Combination May Benefit Some Patients With Late-Stage Cancer

A new study involving patients with stage IV cancer has found that treatment with radiation therapy and immunotherapy can slow tumor growth by stimulating the body’s immune system to attack the cancer. In the phase II trial, patients with end-stage cancer that had metastasized to the lungs or ...

solid tumors

Hospitalization and Rehospitalization After Diagnosis of Advanced Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Whitney et al found that the majority of patients diagnosed with advanced cancer were hospitalized within 1 year of diagnosis, with a sizable proportion having multiple hospitalizations. Hospitalization Rates The study involved California...

solid tumors

Individualized Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors

In a single-center phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Feng et al found that individualized adaptive stereotactic body radiotherapy achieved high rates of local tumor control with low complication rates in patients with liver tumors and preexisting liver dysfunction. Study Details The study ...

solid tumors

Use of CD4-Positive T Cells With MHC Class II–Restricted Receptors Targeting MAGE-A3 in Metastatic Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lu et al found that autologous CD4-positive T cells engineered to express a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) targeting the cancer germline antigen MAGE-A3 (melanoma-associated antigen-A3)...

solid tumors

Detection of Early-Stage Cancers With Circulating Tumor DNA

In a bid to detect cancers early and in a noninvasive way, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, reported they have developed a test that spots tiny amounts of cancer-specific DNA in blood, and have used it to accurately identify more than half of 138 people with...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

Clonal Hematopoiesis in Patients With Nonhematologic Cancers

In a study of nearly 9,000 people treated for solid tumors, researchers found that radiation treatment and tobacco use were linked to higher rates of blood-based DNA mutations that could lead to a higher risk for blood cancers such as leukemia. The study, published by Coombs et al in...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Cancer at Baseline Screening in Patients With Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

In a new study from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), researchers found a higher-than-expected prevalence of cancer at baseline screening in individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare inherited disorder that leads to a higher risk of developing certain cancers. The research demonstrates...

solid tumors

NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH Trial to Test Targeted Drugs in Childhood Cancers

Today, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) announced the opening of enrollment for a unique precision medicine clinical trial. NCI-COG Pediatric Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (Pediatric MATCH) is a nationwide trial to explore...

solid tumors

COX-2 Inhibitors May Reverse IDO1-Mediated Immunosuppression in Some Cancers

In preclinical studies, tumors that consitutively expressed the protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) responded to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) and had improved infiltration of certain subsets of T cells, making them more likely to respond to...

breast cancer
solid tumors

CDK4/6 Inhibitors Have a Manageable Toxicity Profile, Are Generally Well Tolerated in Patients With Breast Cancer

A class of oral drugs for treating breast cancer known as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated, with a manageable toxicity profile for most patients. This is the conclusion of a comprehensive review of toxicities and drug interactions related to this class of...

solid tumors

Insertion and Deletion Mutations and Immunogenicity in Solid Tumors

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Turajlic et al found that renal cell carcinomas were characterized by the highest proportion and number of frameshift insertion and deletion (indel) mutations among solid cancers and that these alterations were associated with augmented immunogenicity...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

ASTRO Updates Insurance Coverage Recommendations for Proton Therapy

The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has issued an update to its recommendations for medical insurance coverage regarding the use of proton beam therapy to treat cancer. The updated Proton Beam Therapy Model Policy provides guidance to payers on clinical indications that are...

solid tumors

FDA Grants 510(k) Clearance to Halcyon IMRT Treatment System

Varian Medical Systems has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k) clearance for its Halcyon system, a new device for cancer treatment. Halcyon simplifies and enhances image-guided volumetric-intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). “We are proud that Halcyon has now...

solid tumors

FDA Clears Expanded Use of Cooling Cap to Reduce Hair Loss During Chemotherapy

On July 3, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the expanded use of a cooling cap, DigniCap Cooling System, to reduce hair loss during chemotherapy. This is the first cooling cap cleared by the agency for use in cancer patients with solid tumors. “We are pleased to expand the...

solid tumors

Detecting Cancer With Intraoperative Multimodal Optical System

To maximize cancer cell detection during cancer surgery, Jermyn et al designed a validation study to determine the accuracy of using an in situ intraoperative, label-free, optical system. They found the system was able to detect cancer cells in patients with brain tumors with a high degree of...

solid tumors

SNMMI 2017: Combining PRRT With a PARP Inhibitor May Slow Neuroendocrine Tumor Growth

Patients with neuroendocrine tumors may experience fewer symptoms and survive longer by undergoing peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) combined with a drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy, said researchers at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

SNMMI 2017: Immuno-PET Shows Promise for Detecting and Treating Pancreatic Tumors, Other Solid Tumors

A first-in-human study presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) (Abstract 385) demonstrated the feasibility and safety of imaging with the novel human monoclonal antibody HuMab-5B1, to enable highly specific targeting for the cancer...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

PD-L2 Expression and Clinical Response to Pembrolizumab in Head and Neck Cancer

A study assessing the prevalence and distribution of programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) in human tumor samples across seven cancer indications, including renal cell carcinoma, bladder, melanoma, non–small cell lung cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, gastric carcinoma, and head and...

solid tumors

Pembrolizumab in Solid Tumors With Mismatch-Repair Deficiency

As reported by Le et al in Science, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) was found to be active across a range of solid tumors with mismatch-repair (MMR) deficiency. Pembrolizumab was recently approved for treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) or...

solid tumors
lymphoma
multiple myeloma

ASCO's TAPUR Study Continues Its Expansion of Sites, Participants, and Collaborators

ASCO’s Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry (TAPUR) Study continues to expand and now has more than 300 participants enrolled on study drug, more than 100 sites, new partnerships, and a revised protocol to lower the age of eligibility. “We are very pleased with the...

solid tumors

ASCO 2017: Larotrectinib Shows Durable Efficacy Across Diverse Pediatric and Adult Cancers

Scientists may have developed the first targeted, oral, tumor-type agnostic therapy—an agent that works comparably well across many kinds of cancer, regardless of patient age. In clinical trials of adults and children with 17 different types of advanced cancer, larotrectinib treatment...

solid tumors

ASCO 2017: New High-Intensity Genomic Sequencing Approach Detects Circulating Tumor DNA at a High Rate

In a study of 124 patients with advanced breast, lung, and prostate cancers, a new high-intensity genomic sequencing approach detected circulating tumor DNA at a high rate. In 89% of patients, at least one genetic change detected in the tumor was also detected in the blood. Overall, 627 (73%)...

solid tumors
survivorship

ASCO 2017: Low Testosterone Level After Testicular Cancer Is Common, Linked to Chronic Health Problems

In a large study, 38% of 491 testicular cancer survivors had low testosterone levels. Compared with survivors with normal testosterone levels, survivors with low testosterone levels were more likely to have a range of chronic health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes, erectile...

solid tumors

AKT Inhibitor Activity in AKT1-Mutant Solid Tumors

As reported by Hyman et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a basket study has shown activity of an investigational ATP-competitive pan-AKT kinase inhibitor (AZD5363) in solid tumors with AKT1 E17K mutation. Study Details In the study, 52 patients with advanced estrogen...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors

FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Pembrolizumab for First Tissue/Site Agnostic Indication

On May 23, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic, microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) solid tumors that have progressed ...

solid tumors

First-in-Class T-Cell Stimulator Varlilumab in Advanced Solid Tumors

A phase I study reported by Burris et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology has shown that the first-in-class agonist anti-CD27 antibody varlilumab is well tolerated and active in patients with advanced solid tumors. CD27 is a co-stimulatory molecule on T cells that induces intracellular signaling ...

solid tumors

Estimates of Cancer Population Reference Values for PROMIS Patient-Reported Outcome Domains

  As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jensen et al have undertaken a study to estimate cancer population–based reference values for patient-reported outcome domains in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Study Details The study included...

solid tumors

Metastatic Uveal Melanoma Response to Adoptive Transfer of Autologous Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

As reported by Chandran et al in The Lancet Oncology, a single-center study has shown that adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes produces tumor responses in metastatic uveal melanoma. Study Details The study involved 21 consecutive patients treated at the Surgery Branch...

solid tumors

Avelumab in Refractory Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)–inhibitor avelumab (Bavencio) has shown activity in patients with refractory metastatic urothelial cancer, according to findings in a phase Ib study reported by Apolo et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. This patient cohort is part of the...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

AACR 2017: IDH-Mutant Cancers May Be More Amenable to Treatment With PARP Inhibitors Than IDH Inhibitors, According to Preclinical Findings

Tumors with mutations in the proteins isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 or -2 (IDH1/2) exhibited features similar to BRCA-mutant tumors and were more likely to respond better to PARP inhibitors than to IDH inhibitors, according to preclinical data presented by Sulkowski et al at the 2017 American...

solid tumors

AACR 2017: Cancer Type and Mutation Identity Influenced Response to Neratinib in a Basket Clinical Trial

In the phase II SUMMIT clinical trial, the likelihood that a patient’s cancer responded to the investigational pan-HER–targeted therapeutic neratinib was influenced by both the cancer type and the identity of the gene mutation present in the cancer, according to results presented by...

solid tumors

High-Throughput Genomics May Improve Outcomes in Difficult-to-Treat Cancers

A study investigating the hypothesis that testing a large number of genes across all cancer tumor types could improve outcomes for patients with difficult-to-treat cancers by using targeted therapies has found that progression-free survival was significantly higher in the those treated with...

solid tumors

First-in-Human Clinical Trial of ONC201 in Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

A first-in-human clinical trial examining the investigational small-molecule drug ONC201 in patients with advanced solid tumors showed the oral agent to be well tolerated at the recommended phase II dose, according to Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey investigators whose research also showed...

solid tumors

Pembrolizumab in PD-L1–Positive Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In an interim analysis of the phase IB KEYNOTE-028 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Alley et al found that pembrolizumab (Keytruda) treatment produced durable responses in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Study Details The current report involves 25 patients with previously...

solid tumors

Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Pediatric Extracranial Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shaikh et al, of the Children’s Oncology Group, found that event-free survival rates were not maintained with the use of reduced and compressed cisplatin-based regimens in children and adolescents with intermediate-risk extracranial...

solid tumors

Can Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Reverse Resistance to Angiogenesis Inhibitors?

In a phase I study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Aggarwal et al found evidence that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor abexinostat may act to reverse resistance to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) via epigenetic modulation of VEGF in ...

solid tumors

‘Collateral Lethality’ May Offer New Therapeutic Approach for Cancers of the Pancreas, Stomach, and Colon

Cancer cells often delete genes that normally suppress tumor formation. These deletions also may extend to neighboring genes, an event known as “collateral lethality,” which may create new options for development of therapies for several cancers. Scientists at The University of Texas MD ...

solid tumors

177Lu-Dotatate Improves Progression-Free Survival in Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors

In a phase III trial (NETTER-1) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Strosberg et al found that the addition of the targeted radiotherapeutic agent lutetium-177 (177Lu)-Dotatate to octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) (Sandostatin LAR) significantly improved progression-free survival ...

solid tumors

Lower Locoregional Failure but Increased Toxicity With Addition of Cetuximab to Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

In a phase II trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group–American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group E3205) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Garg et al found that the addition of cetuximab (Erbitux) to definitive chemoradiotherapy appeared to reduce the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Genome-Based Model for Adjusting Radiotherapy Dose Shows Promise

In a retrospective cohort–based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Scott et al found that individual patient genomic-adjusted radiation dose was associated with outcomes across different cancer types. Study Details In the study, gene-expression–based radiation-sensitivity index...

solid tumors

Successful Retreatment With Cisplatin-Based Therapy Reported in Men Relapsing After Adjuvant Carboplatin for Stage I Seminoma

In an analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fischer et al found that men with clinical stage I seminoma who relapsed after adjuvant carboplatin could be successfully re-treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Study Details The analysis included data from 185 patients who...

solid tumors

Activating NOTCH1 Mutations Identify Poor-Prognostic Subgroup With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ferrarotto et al found that the presence of activating NOTCH1 mutations defined a subgroup of patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas with an aggressive phenotype. Frequency of Mutations The study included genotyping of 102 adenoid cystic...

solid tumors

High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous PBSCT for Relapsed Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors

In a retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Adra et al found that good survival outcomes were achieved with the use of high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) in second-, third-, or later-line treatment of patients with relapsed...

solid tumors

FDA Grants Priority Review to Pembrolizumab for New Indication in Microsatellite Instability–High Cancer

On November 28, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted for review the supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) for pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the treatment of previously treated patients with advanced microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) cancer. The FDA granted...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies
skin cancer

SITC 2016: Phase I/II Data Combining Urelumab With Nivolumab Suggest Increased Antitumor Effect in Patients With Melanoma

Safety and efficacy data from a phase I/II study of urelumab in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo) in patients with hematologic and solid tumors, including biomarker analyses by level of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, was recently presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer ...

solid tumors

Factors in Clonal Evolution of Chemotherapy-Resistant Urothelial Carcinoma Identified

Faltas et al identified factors in the clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma, according to a study reported in Nature Genetics. Findings included wide intrapatient mutational heterogeneity and enrichment for clonal mutations involving L1 cell–adhesion molecule...

solid tumors

Does Telotristat Ethyl Reduce the Frequency of Bowel Movements in Patients With Metastatic NETs and Carcinoid Syndrome?

In the phase III TELESTAR trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kulke et al, telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, significantly reduced the frequency of bowel movements in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome. Telotristat ethyl...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

ESMO 2016: Vemurafenib Shows Clinical Benefit in Diverse BRAF V600–Mutated Tumors

Findings from a phase II trial of vemurafenib in previously treated patients with advanced disease and BRAF-mutated tumors indicate that the drug is effective in patients with diverse BRAF V600­–mutated tumors but not in patients with BRAF non-V600 mutations. After a mean treatment...

solid tumors

Modified Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Luo et al found that a modified staging classification based on the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging classifications may improve distinction among risk groups in pancreatic...

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