breast cancer

Trastuzumab-Based Regimens in Older Women With Early Breast Cancer

A comparative analysis of outcomes with two different trastuzumab (Herceptin)-based adjuvant regimens in older women with early HER2-positive breast cancer found little difference in safety and efficacy between treatments. The study was reported by Reeder-Hayes et al in the Journal of Clinical...

gynecologic cancer

Olaparib Tablets as Maintenance in BRCA1/2-Mutant Platinum-Sensitive Relapsed Ovarian Cancer

A phase III trial (SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21) has shown improved progression-free survival with an olaparib tablet formulation vs placebo as maintenance therapy in patients with BRCA1/2-mutant platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer. These study results were reported by Pujade-Lauraine et al in The...

supportive care
symptom management

FDA Expands Ibrutinib Indications to Chronic Graft-vs-Host Disease

On August 2, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ibrutinib (Imbruvica) for the treatment of adult patients with chronic graft-vs-host disease after failure of one or more lines of systemic therapy. This is the first FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of chronic...

issues in oncology

Launch of Watson-Powered Genomic Sequencing Service to Help Physicians Bring Precision Cancer Treatments to Patients Nationwide

On July 27, IBM Watson Health and Quest Diagnostics announced the launch of IBM Watson Genomics from Quest Diagnostics, a new service that helps advance precision medicine by combining cognitive computing with genomic tumor sequencing. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) will...

cns cancers

Effect of BRAF V600E Mutation on Outcome in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

An analysis reported by Lassaletta et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology showed that BRAF V600E mutation is associated with a poor outcome in pediatric low-grade gliomas treated with standard adjuvant therapy. Study Details The study involved patients with low-grade gliomas with long-term...

prostate cancer

Comparison of Circulating Tumor DNA and Metastatic Tissue Biopsy in Identifying Mutations in Prostate Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Wyatt et al found high agreement between driver mutations in plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and metastatic tissue biopsy in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mutations Identified in ctDNA In the study, targeted...

breast cancer

10-Year Follow-up on Adjuvant Tamoxifen and Exemestane in Postmenopausal Early Breast Cancer

The 10-year follow-up of the phase III TEAM trial has shown that exemestane alone and sequential tamoxifen/exemestane provide similar outcomes as adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive early breast cancer. The findings were reported in The Lancet...

leukemia

FDA Approves Enasidenib in Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved enasidenib (Idhifa) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the RealTime IDH2 Assay, which ...

lymphoma

FDA Grants Acalabrutinib Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the Treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for acalabrutinib for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who have received at least one prior therapy. Acalabrutinib is a highly selective, potent Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK)...

colorectal cancer

FDA Approves Nivolumab in MSI-H or dMMR Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved nivolumab (Opdivo) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer...

leukemia

Asparaginase-Associated Pancreatitis in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

An observational study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Wolthers et al in the Ponte di Legno Toxicity Working Group identified characteristics and the course of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Study Details The study involved merged data from...

breast cancer

Effect of BRCA1/2 Status on Response to Neoadjuvant Carboplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

An analysis of the GeparSixto trial in triple-negative breast cancer showed that adding carboplatin to neoadjuvant therapy improved pathologic complete response rate in patients without BRCA1/2 mutation and that response rates were higher overall in those with mutations, without additive effects...

lung cancer

Tremelimumab in Previously Treated Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma

In the randomized phase IIB DETERMINE trial, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor tremelimumab did not improve overall survival vs placebo as second- or third-line treatment of relapsed malignant mesothelioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology...

supportive care

New ASCO Recommendations for Controlling Nausea and Vomiting Related to Cancer Treatment

An update of the ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline covers new medicines for nausea and vomiting related to cancer treatment. The update, issued by Hesketh et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology today, provides new evidence-based information on the appropriate use of olanzapine, neurokinin 1...

leukemia

FDA Grants Venetoclax Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Geriatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

On July 28, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for venetoclax (Venclexta) in combination with low-dose cytarabine for elderly patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. FDA...

breast cancer

Fulvestrant Receives EC Approval as First-Line Therapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

On July 26, the European Commission (EC) approved fulvestrant (Falsodex) for the treatment of estrogen receptor–positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women not previously treated with endocrine therapy. The EC approval is based on pivotal data from the...

lung cancer

FDA Grants Durvalumab Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Patients With Locally Advanced Unresectable NSCLC

On July 31, AstraZeneca and MedImmune (AstraZeneca’s global biologics research and development arm) announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for durvalumab (Imfinzi) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced,...

breast cancer

Association of Bisphosphonate Use and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women

A study in postmenopausal women in the French E3N prospective cohort indicated bisphosphonate use was not associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. These findings were reported by Fournier et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details The study included 64,438 postmenopausal...

skin cancer

Standard-Dose Pembrolizumab Plus Reduced-Dose Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

In the phase IB KEYNOTE-029 study, standard-dose pembrolizumab (Keytruda) plus reduced-dose ipilimumab (Yervoy) produced high response rates in patients with advanced melanoma. These results were reported by Long et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details In the study, 153 patients with...

lung cancer

Initial Progression-Free Survival Results From the MYSTIC Trial in Stage IV NSCLC

On July 27, researchers announced the progression-free survival (PFS) results for the phase III MYSTIC trial, a randomized, open-label, multicenter, global trial of durvalumab (Imfinzi) monotherapy or durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab vs platinum-based standard-of-care chemotherapy in...

breast cancer

Breast Cancer Survivor Preferences for Providers of Aspects of Primary Care After Cancer Treatment

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wallner et al found that minority women vs white women and women with a lower vs higher attained education level were more likely to prefer oncology-directed care vs primary care provider–directed care for aspects of care normally...

lung cancer

Study Finds HER2 Mutations in 3% of Lung Cancers

The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium at the University of Colorado Cancer Center reported that 24 of 920 patients (3%) with advanced-stage lung cancer in a recent study had mutations in the gene HER2. According to the study, published by Pillai et al in Cancer, 71% of these patients were...

prostate cancer

Association Between Vasectomy and Prostate Cancer

A systematic review and meta-analysis has found no association between vasectomy and high-grade, advanced, or fatal prostate cancer but a weak association with any prostate cancer. These findings were reported in JAMA Oncology by Bhindi et al. Study Details The analysis involved 53 studies,...

issues in oncology

National Cancer Groups Release Joint Statement to Chart the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research

Several national cancer organizations have released a joint position statement to guide the future of cancer health disparities research. The statement, which was published by Polite et al in Cancer Research, represents a unified strategy by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the...

breast cancer

Genetic Study Identifies Susceptibility Loci Modifying Risk for Breast Cancer After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

As reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Morton et al have identified gene loci associated with radiation-related risk of breast cancer in survivors of childhood cancer. Study Details The study was a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of...

leukemia

Response to CAR T-Cell Therapy After Ibrutinib in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

As reported by Turtle et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor–modified (CAR) T-cell therapy produced high response rates in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia previously treated with ibrutinib (Imbruvica). Study Details In the phase I/II study, ...

gastrointestinal cancer

Classifying Gastric Cancers by Subtype May Provide Tailored Treatment Options

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. In 2014, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project discovered there are four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), microsatellite instability (MSI), genomically stable (GS), and...

issues in oncology

Guideline-Based Statin Eligibility and Cancer Risk

A study in the offspring and third-generation cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study showed that eligibility for statin therapy was associated with an increased risk for cancer and cancer mortality. These findings were reported by Pursnani et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details...

prostate cancer

Surgery vs Observation in Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Follow-up of PIVOT Trial

After 19.5 years of follow-up in the PIVOT trial, radical prostatectomy was not associated with significantly improved all-cause or prostate cancer mortality vs observation among men with localized prostate cancer. The long-term follow-up data were reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by ...

solid tumors

NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH Trial to Test Targeted Drugs in Childhood Cancers

Today, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) announced the opening of enrollment for a unique precision medicine clinical trial. NCI-COG Pediatric Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (Pediatric MATCH) is a nationwide trial to explore...

skin cancer

FDA Expands Approval of Ipilimumab to Include Pediatric Patients 12 Years and Older With Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the indication for ipilimumab (Yervoy) injection for intravenous use to now include the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in pediatric patients 12 years of age and older. Ipilimumab was evaluated in 2 trials of pediatric...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Poor Social Functioning in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors

A new study indicates many young adults who survived the disease struggle with “getting back to normal” as much as 2 years after their initial diagnosis. The longitudinal study, published by Husson et al in Cancer, is among the first seeking to understand the social functioning among...

solid tumors

COX-2 Inhibitors May Reverse IDO1-Mediated Immunosuppression in Some Cancers

In preclinical studies, tumors that consitutively expressed the protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) responded to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) and had improved infiltration of certain subsets of T cells, making them more likely to respond to...

lung cancer

Concurrent Chemotherapy, Proton Therapy May Improve Survival in Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer

For patients with advanced, inoperable stage III lung cancer, concurrent chemotherapy and proton-beam radiotherapy offers improved survival compared to historical data for standard of care, according to a new study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The research, published by...

issues in oncology

New Model for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate and Accurately Dosing Carboplatin in Cancer Patients

Janowitz et al have developed a new model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that improves accuracy compared with chromium-51 (51Cr) EDTA excretion measurements and accuracy of carboplatin dosing compared with other published models in cancer patients. Their findings were reported in...

breast cancer

Neoadjuvant Ado-trastuzumab Emtansine vs Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive, HR-Positive Breast Cancer

A West German Study Group phase II trial, reported by Harbeck et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, has shown a higher pathologic complete response rate with neoadjuvant ado-trastuzumab emtansine (formerly known as T-DM1; Kadcyla) with or without endocrine therapy vs trastuzumab (Herceptin)...

issues in oncology

Social Interaction May Affect Patients’ Response to Chemotherapy

How well patients with cancer fared after chemotherapy was affected by their social interaction with other patients during treatment, according to a new study by researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the University of...

lung cancer

Regionalization and Lung Cancer Operative Mortality in Ontario, Canada

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bendzsak et al found that centralization of surgery services to high-volume hospitals in Ontario was not independently associated with improved operative mortality rates in lung cancer. In April 2007, a policy was implemented to regionalize...

hematologic malignancies

Italian Study of Serotherapy to Prevent GVHD in Pediatric Hematologic Malignancy

In an Italian phase III trial reported by Locatelli et al in The Lancet Oncology, a lower vs higher dose of rabbit anti–T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) was associated with a nonsignificantly greater incidence of acute graft-vs-host disease but better event-free and overall survival in children...

health-care policy

Insurance Approval Rates for Enrollment in Oncology Clinical Trials Increased Under Affordable Care Act

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 was the first federal law to mandate that group health insurance plans and state-licensed insurance issuers provide coverage of standard-of-care costs for patients enrolled in approved clinical trials, effective on January 1, 2014. Under...

symptom management

Understanding and Managing Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

More than half of patients with cancer undergo radiotherapy. Due to a phenomenon known as radiation-induced bystander effect, in which irradiated cells leak chemical signals that can travel some distance to damage unexposed healthy cells, many suffer side effects such as hair loss, fatigue, and...

cns cancers

Analysis Reveals Genomic Alterations, Oncogenes Driving Medulloblastoma Subtypes

The most comprehensive analysis yet of medulloblastoma has identified genomic changes responsible for more than 75% of the brain tumors, including two new suspected cancer genes that were found exclusively in the least understood disease subgroups. The study from an international research...

multiple myeloma

Comparison of MRI vs PET-CT in Multiple Myeloma

A study reported by Moreau et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicated no difference between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) in detecting bone lesions at diagnosis in patients with multiple myeloma. PET-CT normalization...

cns cancers

Single-Center Trial of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Completely Resected Brain Metastases

In a U.S. single-institution study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Mahajan et al found that stereotactic radiosurgery to the surgical cavity reduced local recurrence vs observation in patients with completely resected brain metastases. Study Details In the trial, 128 evaluable patients at MD...

gastroesophageal cancer

Addition of Cetuximab to Concurrent Chemoradiation in Esophageal Cancer

The phase III NRG Oncology RTOG 0436 trial has shown no survival benefit of adding cetuximab (Erbitux) to paclitaxel/cisplatin and radiation therapy in patients with esophageal cancer treated without surgery. These results were reported by Suntharalingam et al in JAMA Oncology. Study Details In...

cost of care

ASCO Offers Path to Addressing Affordability of Cancer Drugs in New Position Statement

Today, ASCO issued a position statement aimed at contributing to the national dialogue on rising cancer drug prices. The statement, which asserts that any solutions must also preserve patients' access to care and foster innovation, analyzes a wide array of options and recommends that a panel of...

hepatobiliary cancer

FDA Approves Three-Drug Combination Tablet for Hepatitis C

On July 18, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a combination tablet (Vosevi) to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotypes 1–6 without cirrhosis or with mild cirrhosis. This fixed-dose, combination tablet contains two previously approved drugs—sofosbuvir and ...

issues in oncology

Understanding of Stage and Cancer Status Among Patients in a Community-Based Cancer Institute

As reported by Sivendran et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice, half of patients in a large community-based cancer institute did not know their stage of cancer, and one-third did not know of their cancer-free/in-remission status. Study Details The study involved 208 adult patients treated at...

kidney cancer

Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

The phase I CheckMate 016 trial has shown activity of the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. These findings were reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Hammers et al. Study Details In the dose-escalation study, patients were...

cns cancers

Stereotactic Radiosurgery vs Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Resected Metastatic Brain Disease

In the phase III NCCTG N107C/CEC.3 trial, stereotactic radiosurgery to the surgical cavity reduced cognitive deterioration and was associated with similar overall survival vs whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with resected brain metastasis. These results were reported by Brown et al in The...

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