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gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab Plus Chemotherapy in HER2-Positive, Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tabernero et al, the phase III JACOB trial showed no significant overall survival benefit of adding pertuzumab (Perjeta) to trastuzumab (Herceptin) plus chemotherapy in first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction...

FDA Takes New Steps to Address Youth E-Cigarette Use

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced a series of critical and historic enforcement actions related to the sale and marketing of e-cigarettes to children. In the largest coordinated enforcement effort in the its history, the agency issued more than 1,300 warning...

New Recommendations for Cabozantinib Tablets in Updated NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines

Recently, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines to include new recommendations for cabozantinib (Cabometyx) tablets. With the updates, cabozantinib is recommended by the NCCN for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma regardless...

Outcomes With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

In a single-center analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Peyton et al found that neoadjuvant dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (ddMVAC) produced better outcomes than other standard neoadjuvant regimens in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive...

First-Line Nab-Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine in Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Sahai et al found that the first-line combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine—though it did not meet the progression-free survival primary endpoint—may constitute a treatment option in advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details In...

Neonatal Dysregulated Immune Function and Pediatric B-Cell Precursor ALL

A high incidence of clinically diagnosed infections in the first year of life among children who later developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has led researchers to propose that children with ALL are born with a dysregulated immune function, resulting in a more vigorous reaction to infections ...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Survey Shows Increased Public Awareness of Lung Cancer Over Past Decade

Survey results released by the Lung Cancer Alliance (LCA) show that general awareness about lung cancer has improved significantly over the past decade, with 94% of the public reporting familiarity with lung cancer. Despite this change in overall perspective, findings also indicate that lung cancer ...

prostate cancer
immunotherapy

Mismatch Repair Mutations and Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

A group of men with especially aggressive prostate cancer may respond unusually well to immunotherapy, according to a study published by Rodrigues et al in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The research offers the possibility of effective treatment, with clinical trials already underway. An...

Addition of Hydroxycarbamide to Aspirin in Essential Thrombocythemia Without High-Risk Features

In a long-term follow-up of a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Godfrey et al found that the addition of cytoreductive therapy with hydroxycarbamide to aspirin did not improve outcomes in patients with essential thrombocythemia aged 40 to 59 years without high-risk features or...

colorectal cancer
gynecologic cancer

PMS2-Associated Lynch Syndrome and Cancer Risks

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ten Broeke et al found that patients with Lynch syndrome associated with PMS2 mutation are at increased risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers but not other cancers associated with the syndrome. As noted by the investigators, Lynch...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Bevacizumab Treatment Beyond Disease Progression in Advanced NSCLC

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Gridelli et al, the phase IIIB AvaALL trial did not show improved overall survival with continued bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment beyond disease progression in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although some improvements in subsequent...

FDA Approves Moxetumomab Pasudotox-tdfk for the Treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk (Lumoxiti) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

AACR Releases Annual Cancer Progress Report

The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) has released its annual Cancer Progress Report highlighting how federally funded research discoveries are fueling the development of new and even more effective ways to prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat cancer. Key advances outlined...

Presurgical CT Imaging of CD117-Positive Kidney Tumors

A research team from Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center has discovered a way to use computed tomography (CT) imaging to assess kidney tumors that test positive for the biomarker CD117 and accurately determine—before surgery—whether the tumor is benign or malignant. Their findings...

Bleomycin-Related Toxicity and Operative Morbidity After Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Germ Cell Tumors

In a retrospective single-institution analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Calaway et al found that the addition of bleomycin to etoposide/cisplatin did not appear to increase risk of pulmonary or postoperative morbidity after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection ...

Danish Study on Effect of Screening on Breast Cancer Mortality

In a Danish study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Beau et al used different models to assess the effects of screening on breast cancer mortality, finding a 20% reduction among patients diagnosed during the recommended screening age range. As noted by the investigators, the study was...

Rituximab/Lenalidomide vs Rituximab/Chemotherapy in Advanced Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

In a phase III RELEVANCE trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Morschhauser et al, no difference in complete response rate or interim progression-free survival was found between rituximab [Rituxan]/lenalidomide [Revlimid] vs rituximab/chemotherapy in newly diagnosed advanced...

6th Annual Rally for Medical Research Hill Day Advocates for Continued Growth in Federal Funding for the NIH

Nearly 350 organizations—including medical societies and oncology treatments centers—are advocating for robust, sustained, and predictable annual funding increases for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the 6th annual Rally for Medical Research Hill Day, taking place...

Bleeding in Patients Treated With Anticoagulants and Potential Cancers

Bleeding in patients treated with anticoagulants may indicate an increased probability of cancer, according to late-breaking results from the COMPASS trial presented at the 2018 European Society of Cardiology Congress. Principal investigator John Eikelboom, MD, of the Population Health Research...

leukemia
symptom management

Study Finds Hispanic Pediatric Patients at Increased Risk of Methotrexate Neurotoxicity During Treatment for ALL

Case studies have reported a high prevalence of methotrexate subacute neurotoxicity among Hispanic adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), suggesting sensitivity to methotrexate therapy may differ by race and ethnicity. Now, a prospective study in pediatric patients with ALL has found...

10-Year Follow-up of Axillary Dissection vs No Dissection in Breast Cancer With Sentinel Node Micrometastases

In the 10-year follow-up of the phase III International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) 23-01 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Galimberti et al found no significant difference in disease-free survival with axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in patients with breast cancer and...

Sequential Brentuximab Vedotin and AVD in Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Evens et al found that a regimen of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) given sequentially before and after standard doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD) was associated with good outcomes in untreated older patients with...

Lasker Foundation Announces 2018 Lasker Awards for Basic and Clinical Medical Research and Special Achievement

The Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation today announced the winners of its 2018 Lasker Awards: C. David Allis, PhD, of Rockefeller University and Michael Grunstein, PhD, of the University of California, Los Angeles, will receive the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research...

Somatic Mutations in ER-Positive Breast Cancer and Prognosis

Recent research and genomic studies have revealed a number of genes that accumulate somatic mutations and alterations in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. However, while a few alterations are quite common and relatively well-understood, many genes are mutated in less than 5% of...

lung cancer
issues in oncology
survivorship

Small Study Shows Chemotherapy May Lead to Early Menopause in Young Women With Lung Cancer

A new study suggests chemotherapy may cause acute amenorrhea, leading to early menopause in women with lung cancer. The study is the first to comment on amenorrhea rates in women younger than 50, concluding that women with lung cancer who desire future fertility should be educated about risks and...

Outcomes With Station 4L Lymph Node Dissection in Left Lung Cancer

In a Chinese single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wang et al found that station 4L lymph node (LN) dissection was associated with improved outcome in patients with primary cancer of the left lung. Study Details The retrospective analysis included 657 patients...

ASCO/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline Update: Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients With Cancer-Related Immunosuppression

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Randy A. Taplitz, MD, of UC San Diego Health, and colleagues, ASCO and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated their joint guideline on antimicrobial prophylaxis for adult patients with immunosuppression associated with...

Proteomics May Be Used to Predict Treatment Outcomes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

In triple-negative breast cancer, researchers have so far been unable to identify markers that can classify patients by prognosis or probability of responding to different treatments. In a study published by Zagorac et al in Nature Communications, researchers from the Spanish National Cancer...

solid tumors
lung cancer

FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to LOXO-292 for Treatment of Lung and Thyroid Cancers

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to LOXO-292, a selective RET inhibitor, for: the treatment of patients with metastatic RET fusion–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who require systemic therapy and have had...

Over 130 Buildings and Landmarks in the United States and Canada to Be Illuminated in Support of Stand Up To Cancer's 6th Live Telecast

More than 130 iconic buildings and landmarks across the United States and Canada will be illuminated in a show of support for the 6th biennial Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C) “roadblock” telecast airing in both countries on Friday, September 7 (8:00–9:00 PM ...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Factors in Endocrine Deficiency in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Receiving Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vatner et al identified factors associated with an increased risk of endocrine deficiency in pediatric and young adult patients receiving radiation therapy for brain tumors, including hypothalamus and pituitary radiation dose. Study Details ...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients With HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma

Widespread use of antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to a decline in the incidence of HIV-related Kaposi sarcoma, an incurable malignancy associated with HIV. Nevertheless, about 15% of these patients will go on to...

Prediction of Survival and Disease Control in HPV-Negative Head and Neck Cancer Using Molecular Markers

A new method may predict the course of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative head and neck cancer after radiochemotherapy. According to findings published by Hess et al in Clinical Cancer Research, five microRNAs (miRNAs) may be able to provide the decisive data. Squamous cell carcinomas of the head ...

FDA Grants Priority Review to sBLA for Pembrolizumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted and granted priority review for a new supplemental biologics license application (sBLA) seeking accelerated approval for pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic...

Genetic Forecasting May Predict Response to Cetuximab in Colorectal Cancer

Blood tests could predict how long it takes until colorectal cancer becomes resistant to treatment based on the same principle used in forecasting the weather, a new study by Khan et al in Cancer Discovery has found. The liquid biopsies could also predict patients that are unlikely to initially...

Comparison of Methotrexate Intensification Regimens in Children and Young Adults With T-Cell ALL

As reported by Winter et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, findings in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) AALL0434 trial indicate improved outcomes with a COG methotrexate intensification regimen vs a high-dose methotrexate intensification regimen in children and young adults with...

Rates of Inherited Breast Cancer in Nigerian Women

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Zheng et al found a high frequency of inherited breast cancer among Nigerian women, with presence of deleterious mutations posing very high risk of disease. As noted by the investigators, “…Among Nigerian women, breast cancer is ...

Protein-Metabolite Panel for Detection of Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Fahrmann et al developed and validated a plasma-derived metabolite panel that distinguished early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with high accuracy. Accuracy was further improved with the addition of a previously...

FDA Accepts sBLA for Dasatinib in Pediatric Patients With Newly Diagnosed Ph-Positive ALL

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently accepted a supplemental biologics license application (sBLA) for dasatinib in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia...

Study Examines Link Between Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

Many patients with the rare skin disease recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—commonly called butterfly syndrome—also develop squamous cell carcinoma early in life. Now an international team of scientists led by researchers at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer...

Patient-Reported Financial Sacrifice and Cancer Care

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Chino et al found that high proportions of insured patients with cancer—most with stage IV disease—reported being willing to make considerable personal and financial sacrifices to receive cancer care. The study included a...

Brentuximab Vedotin Plus Gemcitabine in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a Children’s Oncology Group phase I/II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Cole et al found that the combination of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) and gemcitabine was active in pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. As noted by the...

cns cancers
lung cancer

CNS Activity of First-Line Osimertinib in EGFR-Mutant Advanced NSCLC

In a subgroup analysis of the phase III FLAURA trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Reungwetwattana et al found evidence of greater central nervous system (CNS) activity of osimertinib (Tagrisso) vs standard EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with previously untreated...

Sequential Liquid Biopsy Sampling May Be a Predictive Tool for Early Disease Progression in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer among men and women in the United States, with over 97,000 new cases expected this year, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death, with over 50,000 deaths predicted in...

Statement From FDA Commissioner on Support for Exempting Coffee From California’s Cancer Warning Law

Scott Gottlieb, MD, Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, recently issued the following statement: “Ensuring that food is safe and truthfully labeled is one of our fundamental responsibilities at the FDA. Consumers deserve accurate information about the food they eat and how ...

Sex-Based Approaches to Oncology in the Era of Precision Oncology: Upcoming ESMO Workshop

Sex-based approaches to studying and treating disease have remained largely unexplored in medical oncology, despite the field’s growing interest in precision medicine and accumulating evidence that sex is a major factor in disease risk and response to treatment. At an upcoming European...

Radiomic Signature for CD8 Cell Tumor Infiltration and Response to Treatment

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sun et al developed a radiomic signature of infiltrating CD8 cells that could identify tumor immune phenotype and help predict outcome of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor treatment. Study Details...

Near-Infrared Fluorescence With Indocyanine Green Dye vs Isosulfan Blue Dye for Detecting Sentinel Nodes in Gynecologic Cancers

In the phase III FILM study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Frumovitz et al found that near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green dye identified more sentinel nodes vs isosulfan blue dye in women with clinical stage I endometrial or cervical cancer undergoing curative surgery. There ...

Cancer May Be Linked to Poor Prognosis in Patients With Broken Heart Syndrome

Cancer may be linked to an increased risk of death and prehospitalization in patients with broken heart syndrome, according to research presented by Santoro et al at the 2018 European Society of Cardiology Congress. Study author Francesco Santoro, MD, of the University of Foggia, Italy, said, ...

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease May Be Risk Factor for Liver Cancer

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common disease, and with the incidence of liver cancer rising across the country, little has been understood about the link between it and hepatocellular carcinoma. To establish a better understanding of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma risk and...

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