breast cancer
gynecologic cancer

Loss of Heterozygosity in BRCA Gene May Influence Survival in Breast and Ovarian Cancers

Researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found a relationship between the genetics of tumors with germline BRCA1/2 mutations—and whether the tumor retains the normal copy of the BRCA1/2 gene—and risk for primary resistance to a common...

bladder cancer

Treatment of Nonmetastatic Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: AUA/ASCO/ASTRO/SUO Guideline

As reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice by Chang et al, for the first time for any type of malignancy, the American Urological Association (AUA), ASCO, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), and Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) have formulated an evidence-based guideline on...

solid tumors

Use of CD4-Positive T Cells With MHC Class II–Restricted Receptors Targeting MAGE-A3 in Metastatic Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lu et al found that autologous CD4-positive T cells engineered to express a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) targeting the cancer germline antigen MAGE-A3 (melanoma-associated antigen-A3)...

prostate cancer

Reduced-Dose Cabazitaxel After Docetaxel in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In the phase III PROSELICA trial reported by Eisenberger et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a cabazitaxel (Jevtana) dose of 20 mg/m2 (C20) was noninferior for overall survival vs the currently recommended dose of 25 mg/m2 (C25) after docetaxel treatment in metastatic castration-resistant...

colorectal cancer

African American Men Have Lowest Survival Rates Among Patients With Anal Cancer

Over the past 30 years, squamous cell carcinoma of the anus has been one of the few cancers with a steadily rising incidence in the United States, with the most rapid increase seen in black men. To further investigate this trend, researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...

colorectal cancer

Clinical Genomics Implements QIAGEN’s Tube Collection Technology for Colorectal Cancer Recurrence Assay

On August 21, Clinical Genomics announced they have implemented QIAGEN’s PAXgene circulating cell-free DNA tube blood sample collection in its Colvera colorectal cancer recurrence assay. Colvera, an integrated liquid biopsy solution, is designed to enable easy and accurate...

colorectal cancer

Nodal Stage Migration and Prognosis in Anal Cancer

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sekhar et al found that the increasing proportion of lymph node–positive disease associated with enhanced detection techniques has led to nodal stage migration in anal cancer, which may reduce prognostic discrimination on the basis of lymph node...

issues in oncology

Psychological Outcomes in Adolescents With a Parent Dying of Cancer

In a study in the Swedish population reported by Beernaert et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, distrust in the end-of-life care provided to a parent with cancer was associated with long-term adverse emotional/psychological effects among bereaved adolescents. Study Details The study...

gastroesophageal cancer

Prolonged and Intensified Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

A UK phase III trial (UK MRC OE05) has shown no significant survival benefit of extended and intensified neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine vs standard cisplatin/fluorouracil followed by resection in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. The findings were...

head and neck cancer

Medical Costs and HPV Vaccination in Oropharyngeal Cancer

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, including oropharyngeal, vulvar, cervical, vaginal, penile, anal, and rectal cancers, have increased in recent years, with oropharyngeal cancer the most common HPV-related cancer—from 2008 ...

breast cancer

AKT Inhibitor Ipatasertib in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

The randomized phase II LOTUS trial has shown improved progression-free survival with the addition of the AKT inhibitor ipatasertib to paclitaxel in the first-line treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. These results were reported by Kim et al in The Lancet Oncology. The PI3K/AKT...

cns cancers

Adjuvant Temozolomide in 1p/19q Non-Codeleted Anaplastic Glioma

Interim results of the phase III CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) indicate a survival benefit of adjuvant temozolomide in 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet by van den Bent et al. Study Details In the open-label 2 x 2 factorial trial, 745...

hematologic malignancies
leukemia

Early-Phase Study Finds Vitamin C May Activate TET2 Function

Vitamin C may “tell” faulty stem cells in the bone marrow to mature and die normally, instead of multiplying to cause blood cancers. This is the finding of a study led by researchers from Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health, and published by Cimmino et al in Cell....

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Comparison of Screening Recommendations for Mammography

When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates. A new study compares the number of deaths that might be prevented as a result of three of the most widely discussed recommendations for screening...

issues in oncology

Liquid Biopsies Identify Distinct Genomic Profiles With Potentially Targetable Alterations in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

Next-generation sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) identified distinct genomic profiles with potentially targetable alterations in 99.7% of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) who have detectable alterations, according to results published by Kato et al in Cancer Research....

solid tumors

Detection of Early-Stage Cancers With Circulating Tumor DNA

In a bid to detect cancers early and in a noninvasive way, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, reported they have developed a test that spots tiny amounts of cancer-specific DNA in blood, and have used it to accurately identify more than half of 138 people with...

gastrointestinal cancer

Adding First-Line Selective Internal Radiotherapy to Chemotherapy in Patients With Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer

A meta-analysis of three randomized trials (FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global) indicates no overall survival benefit of adding first-line selective internal radiotherapy to chemotherapy in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. The findings were reported by Wasan et al in The...

leukemia

Arsenic Trioxide and Reduced Anthracycline Dose in Pediatric Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

In the phase III historically controlled Children’s Oncology Group (COG) AAML0631 trial, arsenic trioxide consolidation permitted the use of lower-dose anthracycline without appearing to compromise outcomes in pediatric patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The results were...

issues in oncology

Screening for Occult Cancer in Patients With Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism

Because unprovoked venous thromboembolism may be the first sign of occult cancer, or cancer of an unknown primary origin, screening is often considered in patients with the condition to detect underlying cancer at an early, curable stage. However, extensive screening tests may yield false-positive...

lymphoma

Crizotinib in Pediatric ALK-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors

In a Children’s Oncology Group study, high response rates were achieved with crizotinib (Xalkori) treatment in pediatric ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. These results were reported by Mossé et al in the Journal of Clinical...

hematologic malignancies

Off-the-Shelf, Virus-Specific T Cells for Treating Viral Infections After Transplantation

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tzannou et al found that use of off-the-shelf, broad-coverage, adoptively transferred, virus-specific T cells was feasible and effective in treating viral infections in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell...

gynecologic cancer

FDA Approves Olaparib Tablets for Maintenance Treatment in Ovarian Cancer

On August 17, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted regular approval to olaparib tablets (Lynparza) for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, who are in a complete or partial response to...

leukemia

FDA Approves Inotuzumab Ozogamicin for Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Precursor ALL

On August 17, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa) for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). INO-VATE ALL The approval was based on data from INO-VATE ALL, a randomized (1:1), ...

kidney cancer

CheckMate-214: Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Intermediate- and Poor-Risk Previously Untreated Advanced or Metastatic RCC

On August 15, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced topline results from the CheckMate-214 trial investigating nivolumab (Opdivo) in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy) vs sunitinib (Sutent) in intermediate- and poor-risk patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic renal cell...

lymphoma

FDA Accepts sBLA and Grants Priority Review for Brentuximab Vedotin in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

On August 16, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted a supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) and granted Priority Review for brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). The sBLA and its acceptance is based on data from the phase III...

leukemia

End-of-Life Care for Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Wang et al, many older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) do not receive hospice care at the end of life, with those who do tending to enroll in hospice within days of death. Study Details The population-based retrospective cohort study...

hematologic malignancies

Association of Pretransplant Vitamin D Deficiency and Relapse in Myeloid Malignancies

A German retrospective study has found that pretransplantation vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of relapse in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for myeloid malignancies. These findings were reported by Radujkovic et al in the Journal of Clinical ...

head and neck cancer

Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Screening for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

In a Hong Kong study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Chan et al found that screening for circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is useful in detecting nasopharyngeal carcinoma in asymptomatic individuals. Study Details In the study, 20,174 participants underwent...

lung cancer

ASCO Guideline on Stage IV NSCLC Therapy Updated

An update of the ASCO clinical practice guideline on the systemic treatment of patients with stage IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clarifies the role of immunotherapy in this setting. The update, published by Hanna et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, also provides new...

issues in oncology

Short-Term Risk of Arterial Thromboembolism in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer

Patients newly diagnosed with cancer may have a substantially increased short-term risk of arterial thromboembolism, according to a study published by Navi et al in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Patients with cancer face an increased risk of medical complications. However, the ...

pancreatic cancer

Germline Mutations in Apparent Sporadic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

As reported by Shindo et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, deleterious germline mutations in known pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes were frequently found in patients with pancreatic cancer who do not have a reported family history of cancer. Study Details The study involved sequencing ...

breast cancer

Surveillance Mammography by Life Expectancy in Older Breast Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Freedman et al found that many older breast cancer survivors with a limited life expectancy still undergo annual surveillance mammography despite the absence of known benefits. Study Details The study involved analysis of National Health...

hematologic malignancies

Effect of Azithromycin on Airflow Decline–Free Survival After Allogeneic HSCT for Hematologic Malignancy

The French phase III ALLOZITHRO trial, stopped early due to excessive hematologic relapse in the azithromycin group, showed worse airflow decline–free survival with azithromycin vs placebo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancy. The study findings were ...

colorectal cancer

Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates in Adults Aged 20 to 54 Years From 1970 to 2014

In a research letter to JAMA, Siegel et al reported that overall colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in the United States between 1970 and 2014 in patients aged 20 to 54 years but increased in white persons in this age group between 2004 and 2014. Study Details In the study,...

issues in oncology

Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Patients With Advanced Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Bruckel et al found that among patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, those with advanced cancer had lower survival rates and were more frequently designated Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) within 48 hours after return of spontaneous...

breast cancer

Partial-Breast and Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery

The UK IMPORT LOW phase III trial has shown noninferiority in local relapse for partial-breast and reduced-dose vs standard whole-breast radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in early breast cancer. These study results were reported by Coles et al in The Lancet. Study Details In the...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

Clonal Hematopoiesis in Patients With Nonhematologic Cancers

In a study of nearly 9,000 people treated for solid tumors, researchers found that radiation treatment and tobacco use were linked to higher rates of blood-based DNA mutations that could lead to a higher risk for blood cancers such as leukemia. The study, published by Coombs et al in...

lung cancer

Lung Cancer Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria Increase in Number, Complexity

With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and immunotherapy, eligibility criteria have increased in number and complexity for lung cancer clinical trials, according to an analysis published by Garcia et al in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Despite calls to streamline cancer clinical trial...

breast cancer

Genomic Characteristics and Immune Infiltration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Karn et al found that triple-negative breast cancers with high immune gene expression levels were characterized by lower clonal heterogeneity, reduced copy number alterations, and lower somatic mutation and neoantigen loads. Study Details In the study, DNA...

cost of care

Out-of-Pocket Costs Remain High, Even for Insured Patients With Cancer

One-third of insured people with cancer end up paying more out-of-pocket than they expected, despite having health insurance coverage, researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute have found. The data showed that costs such as copays and deductibles could lead to financial distress among insured...

prostate cancer

First-Line Cabazitaxel vs Docetaxel in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

The phase III FIRSTANA trial has shown no difference in overall survival with two dose regimens of cabazitaxel (Jevtana) vs docetaxel in the first-line treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Results were reported by Oudard et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology....

colorectal cancer

Imaging and Biomarker Test Could More Accurately Predict Longer-Term Patient Response to Regorafenib in Colorectal Cancer

Administering a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and a blood test to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer may help to select those who would benefit from a targeted cancer treatment, a new study published by Khan et al in Gutreported. Researchers found that after only 2 weeks on the...

gynecologic cancer

Increased Endometrial Cancer Rates Found in Women With Increased Levels of Cadmium

Through a 5-year observational study recently published by McElory et al in PLOS One, researchers at the University of Missouri (MU) found that women with increased levels of cadmium—a metal commonly found in foods such as kidney, liver, and shellfish, as well as tobacco—had an...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

FDA to Expand Public Education Campaign to Focus on Prevention of Youth E-Cigarette Use

On August 8, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced it would pursue a strategic, new public health education campaign aimed at discouraging the use of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) by children. The agency plans to expand its “The Real...

breast cancer

Effect of Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery Among Breast Cancer Subtypes

In an analysis of the Swedish Breast Cancer Group 91 Radiotherapy trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sjöström et al found that adjuvant radiotherapy vs no radiotherapy had an increased benefit in triple-negative disease and little effect on HER2-positive disease in a...

gynecologic cancer

Final Overall Survival Results of GOG 240 Trial Adding Bevacizumab to Chemotherapy in Advanced Cervical Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Tewari et al, the final overall survival results of the phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 240 trial show continued benefit of the addition of bevacizumab (Avastin) to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic, persistent, or recurrent cervical carcinoma. Study...

gynecologic cancer

New Device to Test for Cervical Cancer May Be Less Painful for Patients, Produce Better Results

When a woman has an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, she usually undergoes colposcopy—a procedure physicians use to closely examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease. Typically, a metal instrument is used to obtain a small sampling of cells inside the cervix, which is...

issues in oncology

Identifying Essential Genes for Cancer Immunotherapy

A new study published by Patel et al in Nature identifies genes that are necessary in cancer cells for immunotherapy to work—addressing the problem of why some tumors don’t respond to immunotherapy, or respond initially but then stop as tumor cells develop resistance to...

issues in oncology

Factors in Discontinuation of Palliative Radiotherapy

In a study reported by Puckett et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice, factors associated with premature discontinuation of palliative radiotherapy in cancer patients included poorer performance status, higher number of prescribed radiotherapy fractions, and treatment site other than bone...

breast cancer

Predisposition to Breast Cancer Due to Mutations Other Than BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Ashkenazi Jewish Women

A cohort study in Ashkenazi Jewish women with breast cancer identified mutations other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder alleles that were associated with cancer risk. These study results were reported by Walsh et al in JAMA Oncology. Among Ashkenazi Jewish women, three mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2...

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