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hematologic malignancies
symptom management

Letter to the Editor: Survey on DOACs in Cancer-Related Venous Thromboembolism

This letter is a follow-up to a report published previously in The ASCO Post. Recent trials report comparable or improved efficacy of direct-acting oral coagulants (DOACs) over low–molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in the treatment of cancer-related VTE (cVTE) at the expense of increased...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Real-World Treatment Impact of Newer Agents on Survival of Patients With Metastatic Melanoma

The approval of several new agents for metastatic melanoma in the past several years has led to changes in how the disease is treated and managed. Treatments such as the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, and nivolumab; BRAF inhibitors; and MEK inhibitors...

solid tumors

Impact of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy on Survival for Patients With Advanced Cancers

The first report from a phase II, multicenter clinical trial has found that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy—stereotactic ablative radiation—can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage IV cancers, while maintaining their quality of life. The study was...

breast cancer

CYP2D6 Genotypes, Endoxifen Levels, and Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Tamoxifen

In a Dutch-Belgian study (CYPTAM) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sanchez-Spitman et al found no associations between CYP2D6 genotypes or levels of endoxifen (active metabolite of tamoxifen) and clinical outcomes in patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for early-stage breast cancer....

breast cancer

Effect of Peer Review Within a Cancer Care Network on Use of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Ganju et al found that implementation of a cancer care network–wide peer review process aimed at standardizing treatment resulted in increasing use of hypofractionated radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer at community-based...

gynecologic cancer
immunotherapy

Avelumab in Recurrent or Refractory Ovarian Cancer

In phase Ib results from the JAVELIN Solid Tumor Trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Disis et al found that avelumab produced durable responses in some patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian cancer. In the study, an expansion cohort of 125 women with advanced disease who had received...

skin cancer

HLA Mismatch and Skin Cancer Risk After Organ Transplant

Data on the risk factors for the development of skin cancer after a solid organ transplant are limited. In a retrospective cohort study, researchers sought to determine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch and risk of skin cancer after transplant. Their findings were...

issues in oncology

American Lung Association's State of Tobacco Control Report Released

According to the American Lung Association’s recently released 2019 State of Tobacco Control report, states and the federal government have not taken meaningful action in establishing policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use, the nation's leading cause of preventable death and disease. ...

lung cancer

Clonal MET Amplification and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Outcome in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

In a Singaporean study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lai et al found that tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment outcome did not differ according to mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET)-high vs MET-low status in treatment-naive, EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer...

prostate cancer

Quality of Life in Men Living With Advanced and Localized Prostate Cancer

In a population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Downing et al found little difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between men with advanced vs localized prostate cancer. Sexual function problems were common among all patients—and often not addressed—and use of ...

issues in oncology

Obesity-Related Cancers Rising in Young Adults in the United States

A new study has found rates are increasing for 6 of 12 cancers related to obesity in younger adults in the United States, with steeper increases in progressively younger ages and successively younger generations. The study, published by Sung et al in The Lancet Public Health, also looked at rates...

lung cancer

Genomic Classification of Lung Cancers Diagnosed in Patients From Appalachian Kentucky

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung represents approximately one-quarter (26.4%) of all lung cancers diagnosed in Appalachian Kentucky, where death from lung cancer is higher than the national average. Researchers sought to characterize genetic alterations specifically found in lung squamous cell...

pancreatic cancer

Enhancing Patient Outcomes After Whipple Procedure

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, or the Whipple procedure, is one of the most complex abdominal surgeries, and is commonly prescribed as a first line of therapy for cancer located within the pancreatic head. Investigators reported that following a 5-day accelerated recovery pathway after surgery helped to...

sarcoma

Clinical Significance of Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Diagnosis in Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vaarwerk et al found that presence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules at diagnosis of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma did not adversely affect treatment outcome in otherwise localized disease. The study involved 316 patients from the European...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

World Cancer Day 2019: Emphasis on Early Detection

World Cancer Day 2019—February 4—highlights the need for urgent action to increase early-stage cancer detection, screening, and diagnosis to significantly improve patients’ chances of survival. Taking place with the theme of “I Am and I Will,” World Cancer...

hepatobiliary cancer

Ramucirumab in Sorafenib-Pretreated Patients With Advanced HCC and Increased α-Fetoprotein

In the phase III REACH-2 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Zhu et al found that ramucirumab improved overall and progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increased α-fetoprotein levels who had previously received sorafenib. Study...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Lung-MAP Precision Medicine Trial Expands

The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP), the first precision medicine trial in lung cancer supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is undergoing a major expansion to include patients with all non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The trial previously tested treatments for people ...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

How Effective Is Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection in Metastatic Melanoma?

Injection of a genetically modified virus that induces the body’s own immune cells to attack metastatic melanoma effectively treated almost 40% of patients with tumors that could not be surgically removed, according to findings published by Louie et al in the Journal of the American...

multiple myeloma

Trial of Autologous Transplantation, Consolidation, and Maintenance Therapy in Multiple Myeloma

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Stadtmauer and colleagues found that second autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) or RVD (lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone) consolidation as post-AHCT interventions did not improve outcomes vs single...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Nivolumab or Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Relapsed Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In a French phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Scherpereel et al found evidence of activity with nivolumab or the combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma. Study Details In the open-label, noncomparative trial, 125 patients...

leukemia

Treatment Outcomes for Children With Hypodiploid Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In a retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pui et al found that minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative status, high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes, and MRD-stratified treatment were associated with improved outcomes among children treated for newly diagnosed...

gynecologic cancer

HPV Testing Using Self-Collected vs Clinician-Collected Samples for the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

In a Dutch study (IMPROVE) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Polman et al found that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with a clinically validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based assay had similar accuracy using self-collected vs clinician-collected samples in detecting cervical...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Avelumab in Previously Treated Advanced Unresectable Mesothelioma

In a phase Ib trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Hassan et al found that the anti–programmed cell death ligand 1 antibody avelumab produced durable responses and a high rate of disease control in some patients with advanced unresectable mesothelioma progressing after platinum and pemetrexed...

lung cancer

FDA Expands Pemetrexed Label With Combination of Pembrolizumab and Platinum Chemotherapy for the First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval for a new indication for pemetrexed (Alimta) for injection in combination with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous non–small cell...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
legislation

ASCO Clinical Cancer Advances 2019 Names Advance of the Year: Progress in Treating Rare Cancers

Over the past year, major research advances provided new treatment options for patients with rare, difficult-to-treat cancers. In recognition of these achievements, ASCO named “Progress in Treating Rare Cancers” as the Advance of the Year. To continue the forward momentum, ASCO also...

lung cancer
lymphoma
skin cancer

FDA Pipeline: Updates on Treatments in NSCLC and Lymphomas, Plus New Dosimetry Software

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted the following application, designations, and clearance: sBLA for Atezolizumab Plus Chemotherapy for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic, Nonsquamous NSCLC On January 17, the FDA accepted a supplemental biologics license application...

gastroesophageal cancer

Effectiveness of EsophaCap Tool in the Diagnosis of Barrett’s Esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus is the only known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although endoscopy and biopsy are standard methods for diagnosing Barrett’s esophagus, their high cost and risk limit their use as a screening modality. Researchers sought to develop a screening method based...

issues in oncology

Prevalence of Infection With HBV, HBC, and HIV in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cancer

In a prospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ramsey et al identified the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients with newly diagnosed cancer and found that a substantial proportion were unaware of...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

Standard Site-Specific Therapy Based on Gene-Expression Profiling vs Empirical Chemotherapy for Cancer of Unknown Primary

In a Japanese phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hayashi et al found that standard site-specific treatment based on gene-expression profiling was not associated with better outcomes vs empirical paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with cancer of unknown primary site....

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Racial Differences in Time to Breast Cancer Surgery and Survival in the U.S. Military Health System

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Eaglehouse et al found that time to breast cancer surgery was delayed for non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white women in the Military Health System but that this difference did not account for poorer overall survival in non-Hispanic black ...

breast cancer
cost of care

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gene-Expression Profiling Assay in Breast Cancer

A new report published by Wang et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network found that using Oncotype DX—the most commonly used test for predicting the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the risk of disease recurrence—is not...

issues in oncology
survivorship
cost of care

Cancer Survivors and Medical Financial Hardship

New research indicates that cancer survivors carry greater financial burdens related to medical debt payments and bills compared with individuals without a cancer history, with the greatest hardships in younger survivors. Published by Zheng et al in Cancer, the study also found that among...

prostate cancer

Long-Term Effects of Finasteride vs Placebo on Prostate Cancer Mortality

In a letter to the editor of The New England Journal of Medicine, Goodman et al reported a long-term follow-up of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial indicating that finasteride treatment was not associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer. Study Details As previously...

colorectal cancer

Watch-and-Wait Strategy for Rectal Cancer With Complete Clinical Response After Neoadjuvant Therapy

In a single-center retrospective case series analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Smith et al found that a watch-and-wait approach was associated with a high rate of rectal preservation and pelvic tumor control in patients with rectal cancer with complete clinical response to neoadjuvant therapy,...

lymphoma
skin cancer

2018 Update of WHO-EORTC Classification of Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas

As reported by Willemze and colleagues in Blood, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) have released a 2018 update of their classification of primary cutaneous lymphomas. As noted by the authors, “Primary cutaneous...

leukemia
lymphoma

FDA Approves Ibrutinib in Combination With Obinutuzumab in Treatment-Naive CLL/SLL

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ibrutinib (Imbruvica), a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with obinutuzumab in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). This is the first approval of a...

skin cancer

Surgical Factors Contributing to Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recurrence

Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is typically treated surgically, with guidelines in place recommending surgical margins for excision based on the SCC being classified as low or high risk. Researchers undertook a study to examine recurrence rates of SCC after surgical excision, taking into...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Results Reported From the Phase III ANNOUNCE Trial of Olaratumab in Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

The recently reported results of ANNOUNCE, the phase III study of olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, did not confirm the clinical benefit of olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin as compared to doxorubicin, a...

leukemia
myelodysplastic syndromes

Combination Azacitidine and Lenalidomide as Salvage Therapy for Relapsed AML After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

In a phase I trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Craddock et al found evidence that the sequential combination of azacitidine and lenalidomide may be an effective salvage therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation...

breast cancer

Short-Term Safety Outcomes in Mastectomy and Immediate Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction

In a prospective cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Potter et al found that complications following immediate implant-based breast reconstruction—with or without mesh—were higher than considered acceptable by UK national standards. As noted by the investigators, the study was ...

colorectal cancer

Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors as Predictors of Oxaliplatin Benefit in Colorectal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Gray et al found that constitutional loss of function single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptors FPR1, TLR3, and TLR4 were not associated with preferential benefit of oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer. As...

issues in oncology

ACCC 2018 Survey Finds Multiple Barriers to Cancer Program Growth

At a time of unprecedented advances in the science of cancer, growing complexity in cancer treatments, and ongoing health policy fluctuation, the Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC) 9th annual Trending Now in Cancer Care survey reveals how cancer programs across the country are ...

issues in oncology

HPV Vaccination Rates in Younger Adolescents

Only about 16% of U.S. adolescents have been fully vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) by the time they turn 13, despite national recommendations that call for vaccination at 11 to 12 years of age. These findings, published by Bednarczyk et al in the Journal of Infectious Diseases,...

issues in oncology

Two Retrospective Studies Find Increased Risk of Suicide Among Patients Diagnosed With Cancer

In a news item reported in The Lancet Oncology, The Lancet journalist Manjulika Das reviewed two U.S. retrospective studies indicating that patients diagnosed with cancer are at increased risk of suicide. High Standardized Mortality Ratio In one study, published by Zaorsky et al in Nature...

breast cancer

Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Prognosis in Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

In a pooled analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Loi et al found that levels of stromally located tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) are strongly prognostic in early-stage triple-negative breast cancer, with improved survival observed in patients with higher levels of sTILs...

lymphoma

PET-Adapted Treatment in Newly Diagnosed Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma

In the phase III AHL2011 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Casasnovas et al found that positron-emission tomography (PET)-guided treatment produced good outcomes in newly diagnosed advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, allowing de-escalation of induction to ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and...

health-care policy
lung cancer

Shared Decision-Making and Use of Low-Dose CT Screening for Lung Cancer

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Internal Medicine, Goodwin et al found that only a small proportion of Medicare enrollees undergoing low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer had a prescreening shared decision-making session, which is mandated by the Centers for...

breast cancer

MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Risk of Breast Cancer

In a population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Arasu and colleagues found that increased breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) background parenchymal enhancement was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, with risk being independent of breast density. The...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Overall Survival in Men and Women Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Advanced Cancers

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Wallis et al found no difference in overall survival benefit in women vs men receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for advanced solid tumors. The authors noted that a prior analysis had suggested men derived a greater...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

Over 40 Medical Organizations Call for an End to the Government Shutdown

Forty-six medical advocacy organization and professional societies have called on President Donald Trump, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConell, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy to end the government shutdown and, in...

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