issues in oncology

Representation of Minorities and Women in Oncology Clinical Trials From 2003 to 2016

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Duma et al found that African American, Hispanic, older, and female patients were underrepresented in oncology clinical trials during the period of 2003 to 2016. Study Details The study involved analysis of enrollment data from all cancer...

lung cancer

ASCO Endorses ASTRO Guideline on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncologyby Bryan J. Schneider, MD, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and colleagues, ASCO has endorsed the recently released American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based guideline on stereotactic body radiotherapy in early-stage...

breast cancer

Are African American Women With Type 2 Diabetes at Increased Risk for ER-Negative Breast Cancer?

A prospective study by Palmer et al assessing the relationship of type 2 diabetes and the incidence of estrogen receptor–negative and estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer among African American women has found statistically significant evidence of an increased risk of estrogen...

breast cancer

FDA Approves Fulvestrant in Combination With Abemaciclib in Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new indication for fulvestrant (Faslodex), expanding the drug's approved use to include combined therapy with abemaciclib (Verzenio), a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive,...

solid tumors

FDA Authorizes MSK-IMPACT Tumor Profiling Assay

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s MSK-IMPACT tumor profiling assay, an in vitro diagnostic test that can identify more biomarkers that may be found in various cancers than any test previously reviewed by the...

colorectal cancer

Ventana MMR IHC Panel for Patients Diagnosed With Colorectal Cancer Receives FDA Clearance

On November 14, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) granted clearance to the Ventana MMR IHC Panel, which provides clinicians with a comprehensive group of immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The tests detect proteins associated with the DNA...

lymphoma

Long-Term Results of First-Line Regimens in Advanced Symptomatic Follicular Lymphoma

Long-term results of the Italian phase III FOLL05 trial, reported by Luminari et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, indicate superior progression-free survival with R-CHOP (rituximab [Rituxan] plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and R-FM (rituximab plus fludarabine ...

gastrointestinal cancer

Adding Targeted Agent to Chemotherapy in Second-Line Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer

In the Asian phase III GOLD trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Bang et al found that the addition of olaparib (Lynparza) to paclitaxel did not significantly improve overall survival among patients with previously treated advanced gastric cancer, including those with...

prostate cancer

TMPRSS2-ERG Genetic Fusion May Be Associated With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

Establishing the way in which a genetic alteration called a TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion forms in a prostate cancer, rather than the presence of the gene fusion itself, could help identify patients with prostate cancer with a low risk of spreading, which might determine the best course of treatment for...

lung cancer

Chronic Stress Hormones May Promote Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Patients With Lung Cancer

Elevated levels of chronic stress hormones, such as those produced by psychological distress, may promote resistance to drugs commonly used to treat lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations, according to new research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Retrospective analysis of...

gynecologic cancer

Immunotherapy in PD-L1–Positive Advanced Cervical Cancer

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) treatment was active in patients with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)–positive advanced cervical cancer enrolled in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-028 trial. The findings were reported by Frenel et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details In the advanced...

issues in oncology

Survival as Quality Metric in Cancer Care

In a National Cancer Data Base study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Shulman et al found little difference in risk-adjusted cancer mortality rates among individual hospitals, suggesting survival may not be an ideal quality metric at the individual hospital level. However, survival was ...

survivorship

Novel Psychosocial Intervention for Fear of Cancer Recurrence

An Australian trial has shown that a novel theoretically/empirically based intervention (ConquerFear) reduced the fear of cancer recurrence compared with relaxation therapy among patients treated for curable cancers. These results were reported by Butow et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology....

Donald Coffey, PhD, Prostate Cancer Expert, Dies at 85

Donald Coffey, PhD, a distinguished Johns Hopkins professor and prostate cancer expert, who was the former Director of the Brady Urological Research Laboratory and Deputy Director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, died on November 9 at the age of 85. Long Career at Johns Hopkins In his...

leukemia

FDA Grants Regular Approval of Dasatinib for Pediatric Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive CML in Chronic Phase

On November 9, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the indication for dasatinib (Sprycel) tablets to include the treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP).This approval for dasatinib in pediatric patients...

gynecologic cancer

Study Finds HPV Screening May Be More Sensitive Than Pap Test for Detecting Cervical Cancer

The main goal of cervical screening programs is to detect and treat precancer before the cancer develops. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting precancer. However, reports of rare HPV-negative, cytology-positive cancers are motivating the continued use of...

lymphoma

Association of Event-Free Survival at 24 Months With Overall Survival in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Maurer et al found that event-free survival at 24 months (EFS24) was associated with prolonged subsequent overall survival among patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Study Details The study involved patients with systemic PTCL...

solid tumors

Combination Therapy for Advanced Lung and Thymus Carcinoids

A European phase II trial has shown activity of long-acting pasireotide, everolimus (Afinitor), or their combination in patients with advanced lung and thymus carcinoids. These study findings were reported by Ferolla et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details In the study, 124 patients from 36...

lymphoma

FDA Approves Brentuximab Vedotin for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted regular approval to brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) for the treatment of adult patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL) or CD30-expressing mycosis fungoides who have received prior systemic therapy. ALCANZA...

hematologic malignancies

FDA Approves Letermovir for Prophylaxis of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Patients

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved letermovir (Prevymis) once-daily tablets for oral use and injection for intravenous infusion. Letermovir is indicated for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients of an allogeneic...

breast cancer

Higher Risk of Breast Cancer Does Not Motivate Cancer Screening in Many Women

Some women, because of genetic predisposition, personal, or family history, have a higher-than-average lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. For those women, earlier magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for cancer screening. But according to new findings presented at the American...

colorectal cancer

Association of Tumor HER3 Expression With Treatment Outcome in Advanced Colorectal Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Seligmann et al found that higher tumor HER3 messenger RNA expression among patients with RAS wild-type tumors was associated with a better outcome with panitumumab (Vectibix) plus irinotecan vs irinotecan alone among patients with advanced colorectal cancer in ...

supportive care

Predictors of Posthospital Care Transitions in Advanced Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lage and colleagues found that among patients with advanced cancer who had an unplanned hospital admission, those discharged to hospice or post–acute care facilities had a worse symptom burden and physical function and worse survival...

hepatobiliary cancer

Internal Radiotherapy vs Kinase Inhibitor in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A French phase III trial has shown no significant survival difference between selective internal radiotherapy with yttrium-90 resin microspheres vs sorafenib (Nexavar) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings were reported by Vilgrain et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study...

solid tumors

Characteristics of Recurrence in Stage I to III Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Cives et al found that postsurgical relapse occurred in 31% of patients with stage I to III midgut neuroendocrine tumors over long-term follow-up, with liver, mesentery, and pelvic lymph nodes being the main sites of relapse....

prostate cancer

HSD3B1 Variant and Response to Nonsteroidal CYP17A1 Inhibition in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Almassi et al, extragonadal androgen ablation with the nonsteroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor ketoconazole improved outcome in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer according to the number of inherited HSD3B1 (1245C) alleles. HSD3B1 (1245C) is associated...

issues in oncology

ASCO Cites Evidence That Alcohol Is Linked to Cancer, Calls for Reduced Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol use—whether light, moderate, or heavy—is linked with increasing the risk of several leading cancers, including those of the breast, colon, esophagus, and head and neck, according to evidence gathered by ASCO. In a statement released November 7 identifying alcohol as a definite...

breast cancer

Long-Term Follow-up of Cardiac Function After Adjuvant Therapy With Trastuzumab in Early Breast Cancer

As reported by Ganz et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, long-term follow-up of patients in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Protocol B-31/NRG Oncology trial showed no worsening of cardiac function or quality of life with the addition of adjuvant trastuzumab...

lung cancer

FDA Approves Alectinib for ALK-Positive Metastatic NSCLC

On November 6, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted regular approval to alectinib (Alecensa) for treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as detected by an FDA-approved test. In December 2015,...

hematologic malignancies

FDA Approves Vemurafenib for Certain Patients With Erdheim-Chester Disease

On November 6, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the approval of vemurafenib (Zelboraf) to include the treatment of certain adult patients with Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), a rare cancer of the blood. Vemurafenib is indicated to treat patients whose cancer cells have a specific ...

gynecologic cancer

FDA Accepts sBLA for Bevacizumab as a Front-Line Treatment for Advanced Ovarian Cancer

On October 25, Genentech announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the company's supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) for bevacizumab (Avastin) in combination with chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel), followed by bevacizumab alone, for the front-line ...

issues in oncology

Hospital Emergency Department Practices for Treating Older Adults With Cancer

A new study published by Lipitz-Snyderman et al in JNCCN–Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network found that among patients presenting to the emergency department, those with cancer, especially those aged 75 years or older, are more likely to be admitted to the hospital—and...

leukemia

Fat Cells May Inactivate Chemotherapeutic Drug and Contribute to Poorer Survival in ALL

It is well established that obesity increases the risk for cancer mortality, although no mechanisms have been proven to explain the reason for this association. Now a laboratory study investigating how obesity might alter the effectiveness of daunorubicin in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic...

issues in oncology

Worldwide Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among Persons Aged 20 to 39 in 2012

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Fidler et al found that cancer burden was higher worldwide among women vs men aged 20 to 39 in 2012 and that the incidence was higher but mortality lower in very high vs low Human Development Index regions. Study Details The study involved data from the ...

gynecologic cancer

Novel Adverse Genomic Rearrangement Signature in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

As reported by Hillman et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, a novel genomic rearrangement signature associated with poorer overall survival has been identified in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Study Details In the study, clinical data and whole-genome sequencing results were ...

head and neck cancer

Combination Therapy for Advanced BRAF V600–Mutant Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

A phase II study reported by Subbiah et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicates activity of the combination of dabrafenib (Tafinlar) plus trametinib (Mekinist) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic BRAF V600–mutant anaplastic thyroid cancer. Study Details In the study,...

leukemia

MicroRNA Expression–Based Risk Model for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lim et al have identified a microRNA expression–based risk model associated with event-free survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study involved comprehensive miRNA sequencing of 1,362 pediatric AML samples, consisting of...

solid tumors

Factors Associated With Outcome in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors

In a St. Jude Adrenocortical Tumor Registry and Children’s Oncology Group study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pinto et al found that a positive Ki67 labeling index was associated with a poorer outcome in children with adrenocortical tumors independent of germline TP53 mutation ...

lung cancer

Novel Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor for ALK- or ROS1-Rearranged NSCLC

A phase I trial has shown that the ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lorlatinib is active in patients with advanced ALK- or ROS1-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including those with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and failure on at least two prior tyrosine kinase...

lung cancer

CHEST 2017: American College of Chest Physicians Unveils New Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

Low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer has become standard practice, mostly due to the results of the National Lung Screening Trial. Related evidence continues to evolve, informing the benefits and risks of low-dose CT in clinical practice. Mazzone et al presented new ...

lung cancer

CHEST 2017: Gender, Language, and Treatment Setting as Barriers in Screening and Patient Care in Lung Cancer

Two new studies from CHEST 2017, held recently in Toronto, reveal disparities in lung cancer screening and care that may impact detection as well as mortality and survival rates in the disease. Risk Status and Screening The first study from Lahey Hospital and Medical Center in Burlington,...

issues in oncology

Changes in Uninsured Status Among Nonelderly Cancer Patients Under the Affordable Care Act

In a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Soni et al reported reductions in the proportion of nonelderly adult cancer patients who were uninsured between 2010 and 2013 vs 2014, after institution of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Study Details The study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology,...

head and neck cancer

ASCO Endorses ASTRO Guideline on Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Harry Quon, MD, of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has endorsed the recently published American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline on radiation therapy for...

multiple myeloma

Results From Phase III ARROW Study of Once-Weekly Carfilzomib in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

On October 23, topline results of the phase III ARROW trial were announced, showing carfilzomib (Kyprolis) administered once weekly at 70 mg/m2 with dexamethasone allowed relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients to live 3.6 months longer without their disease worsening than...

skin cancer

Adjuvant Dabrafenib/Trametinib Combination Granted FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Stage III Melanoma With BRAF V600 Mutation

On October 23, Novartis announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for dabrafenib (Tafinlar) in combination with trametinib (Mekinist) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with stage III melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation following...

lung cancer

PanCan Risk Model for Lung Cancer Screening

Results of the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer (PanCan) study, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tammemagi et al, indicate that the PanCan risk model is effective in identifying persons found to have early-stage lung cancer on low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening. Study Details ...

breast cancer

Complications and Patient Satisfaction After Breast Reconstruction in Women Receiving Radiotherapy

In a prospective cohort study reported by Jagsi et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, autologous reconstruction was associated with fewer complications and greater patient satisfaction vs implant approaches in women receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy. Study Details The...

survivorship

New Persistent Opioid Use After Curative-Intent Cancer Surgery

A study reported by Lee et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicates that approximately 10% of patients undergoing curative-intent surgery for cancer become new persistent opioid users. Study Details The study involved data from 68,463 patients from a national data set of insurance claims...

hepatobiliary cancer

The Liver Meeting: Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk for Hepatitis B Virus–Related Liver Cancer

A new study presented at The Liver Meeting, held by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, found that daily aspirin therapy was significantly associated with a reduced risk in hepatitis B virus (HBV)–related liver cancer (Abstract 223). According to AASLD’s...

hepatobiliary cancer

The Liver Meeting: Direct-Acting Antiviral Medications as Hepatitis C Treatment May Reduce Risk of Liver Cancer

A new study presented at The Liver Meeting—held by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases—found that eradication of the hepatitis C virus induced by direct-acting antiviral medications is associated with a 71% reduction in the risk of liver cancer (Abstract 142)....

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