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bladder cancer

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: Adjuvant Sequential Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy vs Radiotherapy Alone for Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

A phase III Egyptian trial presented by Zaghloul et al (Abstract 351) at the 2019 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium focused on the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Researchers compared postoperative radiotherapy ...

prostate cancer

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: ARAMIS: Darolutamide in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In the phase III ARAMIS trial reported by Fizazi et al at the 2019 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (Abstract 140) and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that the androgen receptor antagonist darolutamide significantly prolonged metastasis-free...

prostate cancer
immunotherapy

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: CheckMate 650: Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Some patients with metastatic prostate cancer respond to a combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors after treatment with hormonal therapy and chemotherapy has not been successful in treating their disease, according to early results from the phase II CheckMate 650...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Approves Adjuvant Pembrolizumab for Melanoma

On February 15, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with lymph node involvement following complete resection. Approval was based on the phase III EORTC1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial, a randomized, double-blind,...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: JAVELIN Renal 101: Avelumab Plus Axitinib vs Sunitinib for Advanced Kidney Cancer

A combination of two drugs could become a new standard first-line treatment for patients with metastatic kidney cancer, according to results from the JAVELIN Renal 101 trial presented at the 2019 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (Abstract 544) and simultaneously published in The New England...

health-care policy
immunotherapy

CMS Proposes Medicare Coverage With Evidence Development for CAR T-Cell Therapy

Today, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) proposed coverage of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy under its “coverage with evidence development” paradigm. Currently, there is no national...

head and neck cancer
kidney cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Priority Reviews in Renal Cell Carcinoma and Head and Neck Cancer

Over the past week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted multiple Priority Reviews: Pembrolizumab in Combination With Axitinib as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Today, the FDA accepted and granted Priority Review for a new supplemental biologics license...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

First-Line Pembrolizumab in Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma

In a phase II trial (Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network-09/Keynote-017) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nghiem et al found that first-line pembrolizumab produced a high response rate in patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. In the multicenter trial, 50 adult patients who had ...

sarcoma
issues in oncology
symptom management

Gastric Acid Suppressants May Reduce Survival Outcomes in Patients With Sarcoma Treated With Pazopanib

It is estimated that 20% to 33% of patients undergoing cancer treatment are concomitantly using a gastric acid suppressant, most commonly a proton pump inhibitor (including omeprazole and esomeprazole magnesium) or a histamine H2-receptor blocker (such as ranitidine). A study by Mir et al...

issues in oncology

Involvement of Primary Care Providers in Cancer Treatment Decisions

The idea of team-based cancer care most often focuses on involving primary care physicians in the care of cancer survivors, but research has shown patients are also discussing initial cancer treatment options with their primary care doctors. Now, a new study by Wallner et al in Cancer has...

breast cancer

New Approach to Predicting Response to Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Breast Cancer

In the phase II TBCRC026 study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Connolly et al found that early changes in tumor maximum standardized uptake values corrected for lean body mass (SULmax) on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

System-Based Intervention to Reduce Racial Disparities in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treatment

Results from a study published by Cykert et al in Cancer Medicine showed that a pragmatic system-based intervention within cancer treatment centers may eliminate existing disparities in treatment and outcomes for black patients with early-stage lung cancer. “These results show ...

immunotherapy

Steven A. Rosenberg, MD, PhD, Awarded the 2019 Szent-Györgyi Prize

The 2019 Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research will be awarded to Steven A. Rosenberg, MD, PhD, of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The prize, awarded annually by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR), recognizes Dr....

survivorship
symptom management

Late-Onset Cardiotoxicity in Pediatric Cancer Survivors: Comparison of Regimens

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Feijen et al found that daunorubicin was associated with decreased cardiomyopathy risk vs doxorubicin among pediatric cancer survivors, with epirubicin being approximately isoequivalent to doxorubicin. Risk associated with the anthraquinone mitoxantrone was...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Implementation of a Hospital Pathway for Patients With a Newly Identified Single Brain Mass

In a study reported by Arrillaga-Romany et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice, a team at Massachusetts General Hospital found that implementation of a hospital pathway consisting of a dedicated admission protocol for patients with newly identified single brain masses and no history of cancer...

lymphoma

Alisertib vs Investigator’s Choice in Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

In the phase III Lumiere trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, O’Connor et al found that the Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib did not improve outcomes vs investigator’s choice of single-agent treatment in relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Study...

breast cancer

Recent Decrease in Deaths Attributable to Breast Cancer in the United States

The latest U.S. estimates indicate that since 1989, hundreds of thousands of women's lives have been saved by mammography and improvements in breast cancer treatment. In a study published by Hendrick et al in Cancer, findings point to progress made in the early detection and management of...

head and neck cancer

Small Study Investigates Rise of Glottic Carcinoma in Young Adults and HPV Infection

An increase in the diagnosis of glottic carcinoma in young adults may be due in part to infection with strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) described finding HPV infection in all tested samples of glottic carcinoma from 10 patients diagnosed ...

gynecologic cancer

Two-Year Interim Analysis of Conservatively Managed Ovarian Tumors

In an interim analysis of a prospective cohort study (IOTA5) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Froyman et al found that the risk of malignancy and acute complications is low when adnexal masses with benign ultrasound findings are managed conservatively. In the study, patients with at least 1...

solid tumors

Inherited Variants in CHEK2 and Susceptibility to Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, AlDubayan et al found that inherited pathogenetic variants in the checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2), among inherited pathogenetic DNA-repair gene (DRG) alterations, were associated with susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors. The study involved screening ...

hepatobiliary cancer

Adjuvant Gemcitabine Plus Oxaliplatin vs Surveillance in Resected Biliary Tract Cancer

In a French phase III trial (PRODIGE 12-ACCORD 18-UNICANCER GI) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Edeline et al found that adjuvant gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX) did not significantly improve relapse-free survival vs surveillance following resection for localized biliary tract...

skin cancer

Updated German Guidelines for Basal Cell Carcinoma

The German S2k guidelines for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma were recently updated to include new developments regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and histology of the disease. Commissioned by the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group of the German Cancer Society and the German Society of...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: KEYNOTE-426: Pembrolizumab Plus Axitinib vs Sunitinib in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Results from the randomized, phase III KEYNOTE-426 clinical trial show that first-line therapy with a combination of pembrolizumab and axitinib extended both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma compared with the...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: Study Evaluates Survival by Race in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

A large, retrospective study analyzing 5 years of data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) found that African American men with chemotherapy-naive, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer who were treated with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide lived 20% longer compared with...

prostate cancer

2019 GU Cancers Symposium: Small Trial of LuPSMA in PSMA-Positive, Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

A single-arm, phase II trial in men with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positive, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed despite standard therapies found that a majority of men treated with a novel, targeted radiation therapy called lutetium-177 PSMA-617...

breast cancer

MRI and Assay Results May Influence Treatment of DCIS

In a prospective cohort clinical trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Lehman et al found that multiple factors, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, played a role in conversion to mastectomy among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who were candidates for wide local excision...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

FDA Approves Daratumumab Split-Dosing Regimen

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a split-dosing regimen for daratumumab (Darzalex), a CD38-directed antibody, providing health-care professionals and patients with multiple myeloma an option to split the first infusion over 2 consecutive days. The approval is based on...

solid tumors
lymphoma
pancreatic cancer
symptom management

FDA Pipeline: Treatments for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor and Pancreatic Cancer, Plus a Statement on Breast Implant–Associated Lymphoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted the following designations and applications and also issued a statement: Priority Review for Pexidartinib in Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor The FDA has accepted a new drug application (NDA) and granted Priority Review for pexidartinib...

immunotherapy

Immunotherapy in Patients With HIV Infection and Advanced Cancer

A study published by Cook et al in JAMA Oncology focused on whether treatment with checkpoint inhibitors is both safe and effective in patients with advanced cancer who are also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Because checkpoint inhibitors manipulate the immune system, the concern has...

colorectal cancer

Do Certain Sedentary Behaviors Increase the Risk of Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer?

Although colorectal cancer rates in older adults have been decreasing in the United States since the mid-1980s, incidence rates for the cancer have been increasing among young and middle-aged adults, according to a study by the American Cancer Society (ACS). Based on the new data, in 2018, the ACS...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Multiethnic Cohort Study Update on Racial/Ethnic Differences in Lung Cancer Incidence

In an update from the Multiethnic Cohort Study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Stram et al found persistent racial/ethnic differences in risk for lung cancer at similar levels of cigarette smoking intensity. A prior report from the study found that African Americans and...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

More Than 60 Leading Health-Care Organizations Call on CMS to Maintain Coverage for Medically Necessary Cancer Testing

Leading health-care companies and organizations representing patients, providers, academic medical centers, laboratories, and diagnostic manufacturers urged the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to revise its interpretation of the National Coverage Determination (NCD) for...

immunotherapy

Machine Learning Identifies Multiple Underlying Factors Predicting Response to Immunotherapy

A research team is using a branch of artificial intelligence known as machine learning to better target immunotherapy to those who will benefit. In a recent study published by Leiserson et al in PLOS One, the team used data from a clinical trial of patients with bladder cancer to...

palliative care
issues in oncology

Site of Care May Affect Racial and Ethnic Minorities’ Access to Palliative Treatment

For patients at the end of life, palliative care can prolong survival and improve the quality of life for patients with a life-threatening illness and for their families—but studies have found that racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to receive end-of-life palliative care than...

breast cancer

Postmastectomy Hypofractionated vs Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for High-Risk Breast Cancer

In a Chinese, single-center, noninferiority phase III trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Wang et al found that postmastectomy hypofractionated radiotherapy was noninferior to and associated with similar toxicities vs conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in patients with high-risk breast...

gynecologic cancer

'Deep Learning'–Based Visual Evaluation for Cervical Cancer Screening

In an observational study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Hu et al found that an automated 'deep learning'–based visual evaluation algorithm permitted identification of cervical precancer/cancer cases with greater accuracy than other screening methods. Study Details ...

supportive care
symptom management

FDA Approves Caplacizumab-yhdp for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved caplacizumab-yhdp (Cablivi) injection, the first therapy specifically indicated, in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy, for the treatment of adult patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), a...

hematologic malignancies
symptom management

Letter to the Editor: Survey on DOACs in Cancer-Related Venous Thromboembolism

This letter is a follow-up to a report published previously in The ASCO Post. Recent trials report comparable or improved efficacy of direct-acting oral coagulants (DOACs) over low–molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in the treatment of cancer-related VTE (cVTE) at the expense of increased...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Real-World Treatment Impact of Newer Agents on Survival of Patients With Metastatic Melanoma

The approval of several new agents for metastatic melanoma in the past several years has led to changes in how the disease is treated and managed. Treatments such as the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, and nivolumab; BRAF inhibitors; and MEK inhibitors...

solid tumors

Impact of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy on Survival for Patients With Advanced Cancers

The first report from a phase II, multicenter clinical trial has found that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy—stereotactic ablative radiation—can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage IV cancers, while maintaining their quality of life. The study was...

breast cancer

CYP2D6 Genotypes, Endoxifen Levels, and Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Tamoxifen

In a Dutch-Belgian study (CYPTAM) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sanchez-Spitman et al found no associations between CYP2D6 genotypes or levels of endoxifen (active metabolite of tamoxifen) and clinical outcomes in patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for early-stage breast cancer....

breast cancer

Effect of Peer Review Within a Cancer Care Network on Use of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Ganju et al found that implementation of a cancer care network–wide peer review process aimed at standardizing treatment resulted in increasing use of hypofractionated radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer at community-based...

gynecologic cancer
immunotherapy

Avelumab in Recurrent or Refractory Ovarian Cancer

In phase Ib results from the JAVELIN Solid Tumor Trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Disis et al found that avelumab produced durable responses in some patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian cancer. In the study, an expansion cohort of 125 women with advanced disease who had received...

skin cancer

HLA Mismatch and Skin Cancer Risk After Organ Transplant

Data on the risk factors for the development of skin cancer after a solid organ transplant are limited. In a retrospective cohort study, researchers sought to determine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch and risk of skin cancer after transplant. Their findings were...

issues in oncology

American Lung Association's State of Tobacco Control Report Released

According to the American Lung Association’s recently released 2019 State of Tobacco Control report, states and the federal government have not taken meaningful action in establishing policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use, the nation's leading cause of preventable death and disease. ...

lung cancer

Clonal MET Amplification and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Outcome in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

In a Singaporean study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lai et al found that tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment outcome did not differ according to mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET)-high vs MET-low status in treatment-naive, EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer...

prostate cancer

Quality of Life in Men Living With Advanced and Localized Prostate Cancer

In a population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Downing et al found little difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between men with advanced vs localized prostate cancer. Sexual function problems were common among all patients—and often not addressed—and use of ...

issues in oncology

Obesity-Related Cancers Rising in Young Adults in the United States

A new study has found rates are increasing for 6 of 12 cancers related to obesity in younger adults in the United States, with steeper increases in progressively younger ages and successively younger generations. The study, published by Sung et al in The Lancet Public Health, also looked at rates...

lung cancer

Genomic Classification of Lung Cancers Diagnosed in Patients From Appalachian Kentucky

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung represents approximately one-quarter (26.4%) of all lung cancers diagnosed in Appalachian Kentucky, where death from lung cancer is higher than the national average. Researchers sought to characterize genetic alterations specifically found in lung squamous cell...

pancreatic cancer

Enhancing Patient Outcomes After Whipple Procedure

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, or the Whipple procedure, is one of the most complex abdominal surgeries, and is commonly prescribed as a first line of therapy for cancer located within the pancreatic head. Investigators reported that following a 5-day accelerated recovery pathway after surgery helped to...

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